Apple and pear consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Abstract The conclusions from epidemiological studies are controversial between apple and pear consumption and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. The present study aimed to investigate whether apple and pear consumption was inversely associated with T2DM risk, and to evaluate the potential dose–response relationship. The Cochrane library, Embase and PubMed databases were searched up to Nov 2016. Prospective cohort studies, which reported the association of apple and pear consumption with incidence of T2DM, were included. Multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) for the highest versuslowest category were combined by using a random-effects model. A restricted cubic spline regression model was performed to examine the dose–response relationship. A total of 5 independent prospective cohort studies were included (14 120 T2DM incident cases and 228 315 participants). The summary estimate showed that consumption of apples and pears was associated with 18% reduction in T2DM risk (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75, 0.88; I2 = 0.00%). Dose–response analysis showed that one serving per week increment of apple and pear consumption was associated with a 3% (95% CI: 0.96, 0.98; p for trend <0.001) reduction in T2DM risk. The present meta-analysis provides significant evidence of an inverse association between apple and pear consumption and T2DM risk.
Dietary functional benefits of Bartlett and Starkrimson pears for potential management of hyperglycemia, hypertension and ulcer bacteria Helicobacter pylori while supporting beneficial probiotic bacterial response
Highlights Pear has potential for phenolic-linked management of type 2 diabetes associated hyperglycemia and hypertension. Fermented pear juices also possess inhibitory activity of stomach ulcer relevant bacteriumHelicobacter pylori. Pear cultivars have relevance to be included in dietary strategies for better management of early stage hyperglycemia. This in vitro study provides conceptual foundation for animal and clinical studies involving pear to combat type 2 diabetes.
Abstract Phenolic-linked health benefits of Bartlett and Starkrimson pear cultivars were investigated for the potential relevance in managing type 2 diabetes and hypertension using in vitro enzyme models. Further effects of fermented (0, 24, 48, and 72-h with Lactobacillus helveticus) pear juice on inhibition of Helicobacter pyloriand proliferation of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum were also evaluated. High total phenolic content along with high 2,2 diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-linked free radical scavenging antioxidant activities were observed in peel extracts of both cultivars. In vitro enzyme assays with peel and pulp extracts also indicated high inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase and α-amylase used as models for anti-hyperglycemia benefits. Only the aqueous pulp extract of Bartlett pear had angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity used as model for anti-hypertension benefits. Fermented acidic pH samples of both cultivars showed H. pylori inhibition at 48 and 72 h, while fermented sample of Starkrimson even showed inhibition at 24 h. Both cultivar extracts did not inhibit growth of probiotic B. longum