Research - Spirulina
The Microalga Spirulina platensis Presents Anti-inflammatory Action as well as Hypoglycemic and Hypolipidemic Properties in Diabetic Rats
Ivan P. Joventino, Henrique G.R. Alves, Lia C. Neves, Francisca Pinheiro-Joventino, Luzia Kalyne A.M. Leal, Samya A. Neves Francisco Valdeci Ferreira, Gerly Anne C. Brito, Glauce B. Viana
Spirulina platensis (Spi) is a microalga presenting high contents of proteins, γ-linolenic acid, vitamins and minerals, and showing many biological activities. It is a promising drug for the treatment of diseases including diabetes. The objectives of this work were to study Spi effects on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and associate this to its anti-inflammatory activity. The treatment with Spi (25, 50 or 100 mg/kg, p.o.) started 48 h after the alloxan injection, continuing for 5 or 10 days. Biochemical parameters were measured in sera of treated and untreated animals. The anti-inflammatory activity of Spi was assessed by the formalin test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. Immunostainings for TNF-alpha were carried out in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, before and after the Spi treatment, and its effect on the release of myeloperoxidase from human neutrophils was also determined. Spi decreased glycemia as well as triglyceride and total cholesterol levels of diabetic rats. Levels of urea and creatinine were also reduced, while liver transaminases were unaltered. Spi also decreased dose-dependently the 1st (neurogenic) and mainly the 2nd phase (inflammatory) of the formalin test, as well as the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of Spi was further confirmed by decreases in TNF-alpha immunostaining in the inflamed paw and in the myeloperoxidase release from human neutrophils. The results showed that the anti-diabetic effect of S. platensis is already manifested after a 5-day treatment. Additionally, considering the relationship between diabetes and inflammation, the microalga anti-inflammatory action may also be involved.
Source : Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine
Link to Full Article
Medical Application of Spirulina platensis Derived C-Phycocyanin
Qian Liu,1 Yinghong Huang,1 Ronghua Zhang,1 Tiange Cai,2 and Yu Cai1,3
Along with the development of marine biological pharmaceutical research, high-effective and low-toxic drugs and functional foods isolated from marine organisms have become a new field of pharmacy and bromatology. The pharmacological actions, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, antitumor, immunological enhancement, and hepatorenal protection of C-phycocyanin (C-PC) from Spirulina platensis, have been reported, and C-PC has important value of development and utilization either as drug or as functional food. There are many researches about the various pharmacological actions and mechanisms of C-PC, but related reports are only to some extent integrated deeply and accurately enough, which put some limitations to the further application of C-PC in medicine. Particularly, with the improvement of living standards and attention to health issues, C-PC being a functional food is preferred by more and more people. C-PC is easy to get, safe, and nontoxic; thus, it has a great potential of research and development as a drug or functional food. Here, the separation and purification, physicochemical properties, physiological and pharmacological activities, safety, and some applications are reviewed to provide relevant basis for the development of natural medicine and applied products.
Source : Journal Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Link to Full Article
Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes
Juen-Haur Hwang, Jin-Cherng Chen, Yin-Ching Chan
Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.
This experimental study showed that the both of spirulina platensis water extract and its active component (C-PC) could reduce salicylate-induced tinnitus and reduce expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC....Therefore, we suggested that the beneficial effects of spirulina or C-PC on tinnitus mainly via inhibiting mRNA expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β, and/or COX-2 genes.....
Source : PLOSone
Link to Full Article