Research - Rosemary (Rosmariun officinalis)
Protective effects of citrus and rosemary extracts on UV-induced damagein skin cell model and human volunteers
A. Pérez-Sáncheza,1, E. Barrajón-Catalána,1, N. Caturlab, J. Castilloc,e, O. Benavente-Garcíac,e,M. Alcarazd,e, V. Micola,⇑
Ultraviolet radiation absorbed by the epidermis is the major cause of various cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancers. Although topical sunscreens may offer proper skin protection, dietar yplant compounds may significantly contribute to lifelong protection of skin health, especially when unconsciously sun UV exposed. A combination of rosemary and citrus bioflavonoids extracts was used to inhibit UV harmful effects on human HaCaT keratinocytes and in human volunteers after oral intake.Survival of HaCaT cells after UVB radiation was higher in treatments using the combination of extracts than in those performed with individual extracts, indicating potential synergic effects. The combination of extracts also decreased UVB-induced intracellular radical oxygen species (ROS) and prevented DNA damage in HaCaT cells by comet assay and decreased chromosomal aberrations in X-irradiated human lymphocytes. The oral daily consumption of 250 mg of the combination by human volunteers revealed a significant minimal erythema dose (MED) increase after eight weeks (34%,p< 0.05). Stronger protection was achieved after 12 weeks (56%,p< 0.01). The combination of citrus flavonoids and rosemary polyphenols and diterpenes may be considered as an ingredient for oral photo protection. Their mechanism of action may deserve further attention.
Source : Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology
Link to Full Article
Role of Rosemary Leaf Extract Against Various Doses of Gamma Radiation
Garima Sancheti and P. K. Goyal*
Radiation & Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur – 302 004 (India)
The present investigation reports the radiomodulatory effect of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaf extract against radiation-induced hematological alterations in Swiss albino mice at various post-autopsy intervals (i.e., between 24 hours to day 30). Treatment of animals with rosemary extract (1000 mg/ kg body wt) prior to irradiation was found to delay the onset of mortality and reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness such as ruffled hairs, lethargy, anorexia and diarrhea in comparison to radiation alone treated animals. Rosemary treated experimental groups exhibited a dose dependent rise (9 < 6 < 3 Gy) in the number of leucocytes (i.e., lymphocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils) by the 30th day post autopsy interval in comparison to the control. Irradiation resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels (p< 0.01, p< 0.001) and a reduction in glutathione levels (p<0.05, p<0.001) in blood as observed in radiation alone treated animals. Conversely, treatment of mice with rosemary extract exhibited a significant decrease (p< 0.01, p< 0.001) in lipid peroxidation level and an increase (p< 0.05, p<0.001) in glutathione content.
......The mechanism of the radioprotective action of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract in this animal model may thus be its free radical scavenging activity and its ability to thus protect cellular molecules from oxidative damage. Furthermore, it inhibited lipid peroxidation and modulated GSH levels in blood of these Swiss albino mice. The activity of rosemary may also be attributed to stimulating or protecting hematopoiesis in bone marrow and a subsequent increase of hematological constituents in the peripheral blood. Since significant protection was obtained at a non-toxic low dose, RE may have an advantage over the known radioprotectors. Further investigations are in progress to study the exact mechanism of action and clinical applicability of R. officinalis in radioprotection.
Source : Trees For Live Journal
Link to Full Article
Can Certain Herbs Stave Off Alzheimer's Disease
ST. LOUIS -- Enhanced extracts made from special antioxidants in spearmint and rosemary improve learning and memory, a study in an animal model at Saint Louis University found.
"We found that these proprietary compounds reduce deficits caused by mild cognitive impairment, which can be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease," said Susan Farr, Ph.D., research professor geriatrics at Saint Louis University School of Medicine.
Farr added, "This probably means eating spearmint and rosemary is good for you. However, our experiments were in an animal model and I don't know how much -- or if any amount -- of these herbs people would have to consume for learning and memory to improve. In other words, I'm not suggesting that people chew more gum at this point."
Farr presented the early findings at Neuroscience 2013, a meeting of 32,000 on Monday, Nov. 11. She tested a novel antioxidant-based ingredient made from spearmint extract and two different doses of a similar antioxidant made from rosemary extract on mice that have age-related cognitive decline.
She found that the higher dose rosemary extract compound was the most powerful in improving memory and learning in three tested behaviors. The lower dose rosemary extract improved memory in two of the behavioral tests, as did the compound made from spearmint extract.
Further, there were signs of reduced oxidative stress, which is considered a hallmark of age-related decline, in the part of the brain that controls learning and memory.
"Our research suggests these extracts made from herbs might have beneficial effects on altering the course of age-associated cognitive decline," Farr said. "It's worth additional study."
The research, which was supported by the VA Medical Center in St. Louis, was conducted in conjunction with Kemin Industries, which manufactures specialty ingredients for vitamin/dietary supplements or that can be added to food to enhance its nutritional and health benefits.
Established in 1836, the School of Medicine has the distinction of awarding the first medical degree west of the Mississippi River. The school educates physicians and biomedical scientists, conducts medical research, and provides health care on a local, national and international level. Research at the school seeks new cures and treatments in five key areas: infectious disease, liver disease, aging and brain disease, cancer and heart/lung disease.
Source : St. Louis University
Link to Source
Could rosemary scent boost brain performance?
Hailed since ancient times for its medicinal properties, we still have a lot to learn about the effects of rosemary. Now researchers writing in Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, published by SAGE, have shown for the first time that blood levels of a rosemary oil component correlate with improved cognitive performance.
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is one of many traditional medicinal plants that yield essential oils. But exactly how such plants affect human behaviour is still unclear. Mark Moss and Lorraine Oliver, working at the Brain, Performance and Nutrition Research Centre at Northumbria University, UK designed an experiment to investigate the pharmacology of 1,8-cineole (1,3,3-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo[2,2,2]octane), one of rosemary's main chemical components.
The investigators tested cognitive performance and mood in a cohort of 20 subjects, who were exposed to varying levels of the rosemary aroma. Using blood samples to detect the amount of 1,8-cineole participants had absorbed, the researchers applied speed and accuracy tests, and mood assessments, to judge the rosemary oil's affects.
Results indicate for the first time in human subjects that concentration of 1,8-cineole in the blood is related to an individual's cognitive performance – with higher concentrations resulting in improved performance. Both speed and accuracy were improved, suggesting that the relationship is not describing a speed–accuracy trade off.
Meanwhile, although less pronounced, the chemical also had an effect on mood. However, this was a negative correlation between changes in contentment levels and blood levels of 1,8-cineole, which is particularly interesting because it suggests that compounds given off by the rosemary essential oil affect subjective state and cognitive performance through different neurochemical pathways. The oil did not appear to improve attention or alertness, however.
Terpenes like 1,8-cineole can enter the blood stream via the nasal or lung mucosa. As small, fat-soluble organic molecules, terpenes can easily cross the blood–brain barrier. Volatile 1,8-cineole is found in many aromatic plants, including eucalyptus, bay, wormwood and sage in addition to rosemary, and has already been the subject of a number of studies, including research that suggests it inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes, important in brain and central nervous system neurochemistry: rosemary components may prevent the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
"Only contentedness possessed a significant relationship with 1,8-cineole levels, and interestingly to some of the cognitive performance outcomes, leading to the intriguing proposal that positive mood can improve performance whereas aroused mood cannot," said Moss.
Typically comprising 35-45% by volume of rosemary essential oil, 1,8-cineole may possess direct pharmacological properties. However, it is also possible that detected blood levels simply serve as a marker for relative levels of other active compounds present in rosemary oil, such as rosmarinic acid and ursolic acid, which are present at much lower concentrations.
More information: Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma by Mark Moss and Lorraine Oliver is published today, 24th February in Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology.
Source : MedicalXpress
Link to Source
Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum on Highly Drug-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli
(Rosemary, Marjoram, Fenugreek)
Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum) against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL)—producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae--
and to identify the specific plant fraction responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The plants were extracted with ethanol to yield the crude extract which was further subfractionated by different solvents to obtain the petroleum ether, the dichloromethane, the ethyl acetate, and the aqueous fractions. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC) were determined using broth microdilution. The MICs ranged between 1.25 and 80 𝜇g/𝜇l. The majority of these microorganisms were inhibited by 80 and 40 𝜇g/𝜇l of the crude extracts. The petroleum ether fraction of Origanum majorana significantly inhibited 94% of the tested strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of all selected plants exhibited relatively low MICs and could be therefore described as strong antibacterial.
Source : Bontany Journal
Link to Full Article