Research - Gut Microbiome
Effects of Turmeric and Curcumin Dietary Supplementation on Human Gut Microbiota: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study
Christine T. Peterson, PhD1 , Alexandra R. Vaughn, PhD2,3, Vandana Sharma, PhD4 , Deepak Chopra, MD1,5, Paul J. Mills, PhD1 , Scott N. Peterson, PhD4 , and Raja K. Sivamani, MD2,6,7
Background. Curcuma longa (common name: turmeric) and one of its biologically active constituents, curcumin, have received increased clinical attention. Insufficient data exist on the effects of curcumin and turmeric on the gut microbiota and such studies in humans are lacking.
Methods. Turmeric tablets with extract of piperine (Bioperine) (n ¼ 6), curcumin with Bioperine tablets (n ¼ 5), or placebo tablets (n ¼ 3) were provided to healthy human subjects and subsequent changes in the gut microbiota were determined by 16S rDNA sequencing.
Results. The number of taxa detected ranged from 172 to 325 bacterial species. The placebo group displayed an overall reduction in species by 15%, whereas turmeric-treated subjects displayed a modest 7% increase in observed species posttreatment. Subjects taking curcumin displayed an average increase of 69% in detected species. The gut microbiota response to treatment was highly personalized, thus leading to responders and nonresponders displaying response concordance. These “responsive” subjects defined a signature involving uniform increases in most Clostridium spp., Bacteroides spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Enterococcus spp., Klebsiella spp., Parabacteroides spp., and Pseudomonas spp. Common to these subjects was the reduced relative abundance of several Blautia spp. and most Ruminococcus spp.
Conclusions. All participants’ microbiota displayed significant variation over time and individualized response to treatment. Among the responsive participants, both turmeric and curcumin altered the gut microbiota in a highly similar manner, suggesting that curcumin may drive the majority of observed changes observed in turmeric-treated subjects.
Source : Journal of Evidence Based Integrative Medicine
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The Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis: A Potential Therapeutic Avenue
Trevor O. Kirby andJavier Ochoa-Repáraz
Recently, there has been a substantial increase in the number of studies focused upon connecting the gut microbiome with cases of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder of the CNS. Recent experimental and clinical evidence suggests the presence of microbial imbalances in the gut of MS sufferers. The gut microbiome is defined as the summation of all the microbial entities as well as their genes, proteins, and metabolic products in a given space and time. Studies show the MS gut microbiome as having general alterations in specific taxa, some associated with the promotion of inflammatory cytokines and overall inflammation. In conjunction with these findings, experimental models of the disease have reported that T regulatory (Treg) cells have deficits in their function as a result of the aberrant gut microbiota composition. The findings suggest that the interactions between the host and the microbiota are reciprocal, although more extensive work is required to confirm this. Moreover, evidence indicates that changes in microbiota composition may result in imbalances that could result in disease, with the gut as a potential novel therapeutic avenue. By understanding the biological effects of aberrant gut microbiome composition, it is possible to contemplate current therapeutic options and their efficacy. Ultimately, more research is necessary in this field, but targeting the gut microbiota may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies
Source : Journal Medical Sciences
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Prebiotic Potential of Herbal Medicines Used in Digestive Health and Disease
Christine Tara Peterson. Vandana Sharma Sasha Uchitel, Kate Denniston, Deepak Chopra, Paul J. Mills, Scott N. Peterson
Introduction: The prebiotic potential of herbal medicines has been scarcely studied.
Methods: The authors therefore used anaerobic human fecal cultivation to investigate whether three herbal medicines commonly used in gastrointestinal health and disease in Ayurveda alter the growth and abundance of specific bacterial species.
Results: Profiling of cultures supplemented with Glycyrrhiza glabra, Ulmus rubra, or triphala formulation by 16S rDNA sequencing revealed profound changes in diverse taxa in human gut microbiota. Principal coordinate analysis highlights that each herbal medicine drives the formation of unique microbial communities. The relative abundance of approximately one-third of the 299 species profiled was altered by all 3 medicines, whereas additional species displayed herb-specific alterations. Herb supplementation increased the abundance of many bacteria known to promote human health, including Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Bacteroides spp. Herb supplementation resulted in the reduced relative abundance of many species, including potential pathogens such as Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Herbal medicines induced blooms of butyrate- and propionate-producing species. U. rubra and triphala significantly increased the relative abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria, whereas G. glabra induced the largest increase in propionate-producing species. To achieve greater insight into the mechanisms through which herbal medicines alter microbial communities, the authors assessed the shifts in abundance of glycosyl hydrolase families induced by each herbal medicine. Herb supplementation, particularly G. glabra, significantly increased the representation and potential expression of several glycosyl hydrolase families.
Discussion: These studies are novel in highlighting the significant prebiotic potential of medicinal herbs and suggest that the health benefits of these herbs are due, at least in part, to their ability to modulate the gut microbiota in a manner predicted to improve colonic epithelium function, reduce inflammation, and protect from opportunistic infection. Forthcoming studies in human clinical trials will test the concordance of the results generated in vitro and the predictions made by genome analyses.
Source : Journal Alternative and Complementary Medicine
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Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei LP-33 in allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (GA2LEN Study)
D J Costa1, P Marteau2, M Amouyal1, L K Poulsen3, E Hamelmann4, M Cazaubiel5, B Housez5, S Leuillet5, M Stavnsbjerg6, P Molimard7, S Courau7 and J Bousquet8,9
- 1Primary Care Department, University of Medicine, Montpellier I University, Montpellier, France
- 2University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, APHP, Department of Hepato-gastro-enterology, Hôpital Lariboisière, Paris, France
- 3Allergy Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital at Gentofte, Copenhagen, Denmark
- 4University Children’s Hospital, Ruhr-University Bochum, Department of Pediatrics, Bochum, Germany
- 5Biofortis, Mérieux NutriSciences Company, Saint-Herblain, France
- 6Global Regulatory and External Affairs, Chr. Hansen A/S, Hørsholm, Denmark
- 7Merck Consumer Health, Merck Médication Familiale, Dijon, France
- 8Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospital, Hôpital Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier, France
- 9Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Respiratory and Environmental Epidemiology team, Villejuif, France
Background/objectives: An imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cells is involved in allergic rhinitis (AR) that may be improved by probiotics. To test the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei LP-33, a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was carried out in patients with AR to grass pollen treated with loratadine and presenting altered quality of life.
Subjects/methods: Subjects with persistent AR, symptomatic during the grass pollen season, and a positive skin test or specific immunoglobulin E to grass pollens were included by general practitioners (GPs). All received loratadine for 5 weeks. The primary end point was the improvement in Rhinitis Quality of Life (RQLQ) global score at the fifth week of LP-33 consumption compared with placebo (in addition to loratadine). Secondary end points included nasal and ocular symptoms (individual and total symptom scores), visual analogue scale and time of first exacerbation of the symptoms when loratadine was stopped.
Results: A total of 425 subjects were included. Using intent-to-treat analysis, the RQLQ global score decreased significantly more in the LP-33 group than in the placebo group (P=0.0255, difference=−0.286 (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.536; −0.035)). No significant differences were noted for the change of the rhinitis total symptom score 5 global score between groups (P=0.1288, difference=−0.452 (95% CI: −1.036; 0.132)). Significant differences in ocular symptoms (RQLQ) were observed between groups (P=0.0029, difference=−0.4087 (95% CI: −0.6768; −0.1407)).
Conclusions: This study performed by GPs shows that LP-33 improves the quality of life of subjects with persistent AR who are currently being treated with an oral H1-antihistamine. Whereas nasal symptoms had not changed, ocular symptoms had consistently improved.
Source : EU Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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Use of Streptococcus salivarius K12 in the prevention of streptococcal and viral pharyngotonsillitis in children.
Di Pierro F1, Colombo M2, Zanvit A3, Risso P4, Rottoli AS5.
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 is an oral probiotic strain releasing two lantibiotics (salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B) that antagonize the growth of S. pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans also affected by episodes of acute otitis media. S. salivarius K12 successfully colonizes the oral cavity, and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. We tested its preventive role in reducing the incidence of both streptococcal and viral pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis in children.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 61 children with a diagnosis of recurrent oral streptococcal disorders. Thirty-one of them were enrolled to be treated daily for 90 days with a slow-release tablet for oral use, containing no less than 1 billion colony-forming units/tablet of S. salivarius K12 (Bactoblis®), and the remaining 30 served as the untreated control group. During treatment, they were all examined for streptococcal infection. Twenty children (ten per group) were also assessed in terms of viral infection. Secondary end points in both groups were the number of days under antibiotic and antipyretic therapy and the number of days off school (children) and off work (parents).
RESULTS: The 30 children who completed the 90-day trial with Bactoblis® showed a significant reduction in their episodes of streptococcal pharyngeal infection (>90%), as calculated by comparing the infection rates of the previous year. No difference was observed in the control group. The treated group showed a significant decrease in the incidence (80%) of oral viral infections. Again, there was no difference in the control group. With regard to secondary end points, the number of days under antibiotic treatment of the treated and control groups were 30 and 900 respectively, days under antipyretic treatment 16 and 228, days of absence from school 16 and 228, and days of absence from work 16 and 228. The product was well tolerated by the subjects, with no side effects, and only one individual reported bad product palatability and dropped out.
CONCLUSION: Prophylactic administration of S. salivarius K12 to children with a history of recurrent oral streptococcal disease resulted in a considerable reduction of episodes of both streptococcal and viral infections and reduced the number of days under antibiotic and/or antipyretic therapy and days of absence from school or work.
Source : Drug Healthc Patient Saf.
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Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN0191,2,3
- Harsharnjit S Gill,
- Kay J Rutherfurd,
- Martin L Cross, and
- Pramod K Gopal
BACKGROUND: The aging process can lead to a decline in cellular immunity. Therefore, the elderly could benefit from safe and effective interventions that restore cellular immune functions.
OBJECTIVE: We determined whether dietary supplementation with the known immunostimulating probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 could enhance aspects of cellular immunity in elderly subjects.
DESIGN: Thirty healthy elderly volunteers (age range: 63-84 y; median: 69 y) participated in a 3-stage dietary supplementation trial lasting 9 wk. During stage 1 (run-in), subjects consumed low-fat milk (200 mL twice daily for 3 wk) as a base-diet control. During stage 2 (intervention), they consumed milk supplemented with B. lactis HN019 in a typical dose (5 x 10(10) organisms/d) or a low dose (5 x 10(9) organisms/d) for 3 wk. During stage 3 (washout), they consumed low-fat milk for 3 wk. Changes in the relative proportions of leukocyte subsets and ex vivo leukocyte phagocytic and tumor-cell-killing activity were determined longitudinally by assaying peripheral blood samples.
RESULTS: Increases in the proportions of total, helper (CD4(+)), and activated (CD25(+)) T lymphocytes and natural killer cells were measured in the subjects' blood after consumption of B. lactis HN019. The ex vivo phagocytic capacity of mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes and the tumoricidal activity of natural killer cells were also elevated after B. lactis HN019 consumption. The greatest changes in immunity were found in subjects who had poor pretreatment immune responses. In general, the 2 doses of B. lactis HN019 had similar effectiveness.
CONCLUSION: B. lactis HN019 could be an effective probiotic dietary supplement for enhancing some aspects of cellular immunity in the elderly.
Source : The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women
Marina Sancheza1, Christian Darimonta2, Vicky Drapeaua3, Shahram Emady-Azara4, Melissa Lepagea5, Enea Rezzonicoa2, Catherine Ngom-Brua5, Bernard Bergera2, Lionel Philippea4, Corinne Ammon-Zuffreya2, Patricia Leonea2, Genevieve Chevriera6, Emmanuelle St-Amanda6, André Marettea6, Jean Doréa1 and Angelo Tremblaya1 c1a1 Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6
a2 Nutrition and Health Research Department, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
a3 Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Laval University, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 0A6
a4 Clinical Development Unit, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
a5 Analytical Sciences Department, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland
a6 Research Center of the Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 4G5
The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, each subject consumed two capsules per d of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (1·6 × 108 colony-forming units of LPR/capsule with oligofructose and inulin). Each group was submitted to moderate energy restriction for the first 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition were measured at baseline, at week 12 and at week 24. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P= 0·02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0·53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss.
Source : British Journal of Nutrition
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Probiotics Improve Bone Density In Animal Study
Probiotics -- the "good" bacteria found in fermented foods like yogurt -- could do the bones some good, according to a new study in mice.
While the findings have yet to be replicated in humans, Michigan State University researchers said they are hopeful their finding that probiotics seems to improve bone density could have implications for future osteoporosis medications -- especially since some current drugs come with less-than-desired side effects.
"We know that inflammation in the gut can cause bone loss, though it's unclear exactly why," study researcher Laura McCabe, a professor at Michigan State University, said in a statement. "The neat thing we found is that a probiotic can enhance bone density."
The study, published in the Journal of Cellular Physiology, involved feeding mice an inflammation-reducing probiotic called Lactobacillus reuteri for four weeks. Researchers found that male mice experienced a boost in bone density after being fed the probiotics, though female mice didn't experience this same benefit.
Probiotics are known to be good for digestion and aiding in some gastrointestinal conditions, the Mayo Clinic noted, but emerging research shows it could be have uses beyond the gut, too. A small study presented at a meeting of the American Heart Association showed that taking two daily doses of a specific kind of probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242) seems to lower levels of total and "bad" cholesterol in people. And a review of studies, published in The Cochrane Library in 2011, showed that probiotics seem to have an effect against upper respiratory tract infections.
Source : Huffington Post
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Chronic kidney disease alters intestinal microbial flora
Nosratola D Vaziri1, Jakk Wong2, Madeleine Pahl1, Yvette M Piceno2, Jun Yuan1, Todd Z DeSantis3, Zhenmin Ni1, Tien-Hung Nguyen2 and Gary L Andersen2
- 1Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, UC Irvine Medical Center, Irvine, California, USA
- 2Center for Environmental Biotechnology, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA
- 3Second Genome, San Bruno, California, USA
The population of microbes (microbiome) in the intestine is a symbiotic ecosystem conferring trophic and protective functions. Since the biochemical environment shapes the structure and function of the microbiome, we tested whether uremia and/or dietary and pharmacologic interventions in chronic kidney disease alters the microbiome. To identify different microbial populations, microbial DNA was isolated from the stools of 24 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and 12 healthy persons, and analyzed by phylogenetic microarray. There were marked differences in the abundance of 190 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) between the ESRD and control groups. OTUs from Brachybacterium, Catenibacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae, Nesterenkonia, Polyangiaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, and Thiothrix families were markedly increased in patients with ESRD. To isolate the effect of uremia from inter-individual variations, comorbid conditions, and dietary and medicinal interventions, rats were studied 8 weeks post 5/6 nephrectomy or sham operation. This showed a significant difference in the abundance of 175 bacterial OTUs between the uremic and control animals, most notably as decreases in the Lactobacillaceae and Prevotellaceae families. Thus, uremia profoundly alters the composition of the gut microbiome. The biological impact of this phenomenon is unknown and awaits further investigation.
Source : Kidney International
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Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Aloe vera gel improve lipid profiles in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Kumar M, Rakesh S, Nagpal R, Hemalatha R, Ramakrishna A, Sudarshan V, Ramagoni R, Shujauddin M, Verma V, Kumar A, Tiwari A, Singh B, Kumar R.
Source : Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India.
OBJECTIVE: The effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Aloe vera (AV) gel on lipid profiles in rats with induced hypercholesterolemia were studied.
METHODS: Five treatment groups of rats (n = 7) were the fed experimental diets: a normal control diet, a hypercholesterolemic diet (HD), HD + LGG, HD + AV gel, and HD + LGG + AV gel.
RESULTS: Supplementation with LGG decreased serum total cholesterol by 32%; however, in combination with AV, the decrease was 43%. The decreases in triacylglycerol levels in the HD + LGG, HD + AV, and HD + LGG + AV groups were 41%, 23% and 45%, respectively. High-density lipoprotein increased by 12% in the HD + LGG + AV group, whereas very low-density and low-density lipoprotein values decreased by 45% and 30%, respectively. The atherogenic index in the HD + LGG + AV group decreased to 2.45 from 4.77 in the HD + LGG group. Furthermore, fecal Lactobacillus species counts increased significantly when LGG was fed in combination with the AV gel. The oral administration of LGG fermented milk alone or in combination with the AV gel increased cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase expression) and absorption (low-density lipoprotein receptor expression), whereas cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression levels were lower in the HD + LGG and HD + LGG + AV groups compared with the control HD group.
CONCLUSION: The combination of LGG and AV gel may have a therapeutic potential to decrease cholesterol levels and the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
Source : Nutrition. 2012 Dec 31. pii: S0899-9007(12)00362-0. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2012.09.006
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ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN THE TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: POTENTIAL MECHANISMS AND CURRENT
Viola Andresen and Daniel C. Baumgart
Department of Medicine, Division of Hepatology & Gastroenterology, Charité Medical School – Virchow Hospital, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder affecting 3 to 15 % of the general population. It is characterized by unexplained abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating in association with altered bowel
habits. The pathophysiology of IBS is not well understood, but most likely involves multiple causes. IBS has been associated
with abnormal gastrointestinal motor function, visceral hypersensitivity, psychosocial factors, autonomic dysfunction,
and inflammation. In a subgroup of patients, IBS develops after an acute bacterial infection of the bowel. Increased numbers of
inflammatory cells, such as mast cells and lymphocytes in the colonic mucosa of IBS patients suggest an ongoing state of
inflammation in these patients. Probiotics have been shown to have a beneficial effect in acute infectious diarrhea and
inflammatory bowel disease and thus could presumably be of potential benefit in postinfectious IBS. Another rationale for
using probiotics in IBS is their potential to influence fermentation processes and diminish gas production by changing
the colonic flora. Even though evidence from controlled clinical trials supporting a beneficial role of probiotics in the treatment
of IBS is still limited, improvement of different IBS symptoms and normalization of inflammatory cytokine levels have been
demonstrated. Small sample sizes and the use of different probiotic preparations complicate the interpretation and comparison
between different studies. While preliminary results are encouraging, the exact mechanism of action and their clinical
efficacy of Probiotics in ISB need to be studied in well designed experiments and larger randomized, controlled trials.
Source : International Journal of Probiotics and Prebiotics Vol. 1, pp. 11-18,
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Meta-analysis of probiotics for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.
McFarland LV, Dublin S.
Department of Health Services Research and Development, VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle WA 98101, United States.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic condition affecting 3%-25% of the general population. As no curative treatment is available, therapy is aimed at reducing symptoms, often with little success. Because alteration of the normal intestinal microflora has been observed in IBS, probiotics (beneficial microbes taken to improve health) may be useful in reducing symptoms. This paper systematically reviews randomized, controlled, blinded trials of probiotics for the treatment of IBS and synthesizes data on efficacy across trials of adequate quality. PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, NIH registry of clinical trials, metaRegister, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from 1982-2007. We also conducted secondary searches of reference lists, reviews, commentaries, relevant articles on associated diseases, books and meeting abstracts. Twenty trials with 23 probiotic treatment arms and a total of 1404 subjects met inclusion criteria. Probiotic use was associated with improvement in global IBS symptoms compared to placebo [pooled relative risk (RR pooled) 0.77, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.62-0.94]. Probiotics were also associated with less abdominal pain compared to placebo [RR pooled = 0.78 (0.69-0.88)]. Too few studies reported data on other IBS symptoms or on specific probiotic strains to allow estimation of a pooled RR. While our analyses suggest that probiotic use may be associated with improvement in IBS symptoms compared to placebo, these results should be interpreted with caution, given the methodological limitations of contributing studies. Probiotics warrant further study as a potential therapy for IBS.
Source : World Journal of Gastroenterology
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Efficacy of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.
Nikfar S, Rahimi R, Rahimi F, Derakhshani S, Abdollahi M.
Drug Selecting Committee, Food and Drug Organization, Food & Drug Laboratory Research Center, Ministry of Health & Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate whether probiotics improve symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.
METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies that investigated the efficacy of probiotics in the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Clinical improvement was the key outcome of interest. Data were searched within the time period of 1966 through September 2007.
RESULTS: Eight randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trials met our criteria and were included in the analysis. Pooling of eight trials for the outcome of clinical improvement yielded a significant relative risk of 1.22 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.07-1.4; P = 0.0042).
CONCLUSIONS: Probiotics may improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome and can be used as supplement to standard therapy.
Source : Dis Colon Rectum. 2008 Dec;51(12):1775-80.
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