Research - Epilepsy / Convulsions / Seizures
The Effects of Various Essential Oils on Epilepsy and Acute Seizure: A Systematic Review
Tyler A. Bahr,1,2 Damian Rodriguez,1 Cody Beaumont,1 and Kathryn Allred1
Many essential oils (EOs) have anticonvulsant activity and might benefit people with epilepsy. Lemongrass, lavender, clove, dill, and other EOs containing constituents such as asarone, carvone, citral, eugenol, or linalool are good candidates for evaluation as antiepileptic drugs. On the other hand, some EOs have convulsant effects and may trigger seizures in both epileptic and healthy individuals. Internal use of EOs like sage, hyssop, rosemary, camphor, pennyroyal, eucalyptus, cedar, thuja, and fennel can cause epileptic seizures because they contain thujone, 1,8-cineole, camphor, or pinocamphone, which have been identified as convulsive agents. While more research is needed to confirm their mechanisms of action, it appears that the convulsant or anticonvulsant properties of essential oils are largely due to (1) their ability to modulate the GABAergic system of neurotransmission and (2) their capacity to alter ionic currents through ion channels. This review presents a systematic analysis of the current research on EOs and epilepsy, including human case studies, animal models, and in vitro studies.
Source : Journal Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Safety and tolerability of Vitamin D3 5000 IU/day in epilepsy
Christopher M.DeGiorgio Dieter Hertling Ashley Curtis Diana Murray Daniela Markovic
Purpose: Preclinical and early clinical research indicates that Vitamin D3 may reduce seizures in both animal models and open-label clinical trials.
Methods: This is an initial report of an ongoing pilot study of oral Vitamin D3 5000 IU/day in subjects with drugresistant epilepsy. After Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval and informed consent, subjects with ;less than one focal onset or generalized tonic–clonic seizure per month were enrolled. Subjects entered a 4-week baseline, followed by a 12-week treatment period. Serum 25, OH Vitamin D3, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and calcium levels were monitored at baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks.
Results: High-dose Vitamin D3 5000 IU/day was well tolerated. Serum 25, OH Vitamin D3 levels increased significantly at six and twelve weeks. Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as a 25, OH Vitamin D3 level of <20 ng/ml normalized in all subjects with insufficient vitamin D levels. Median seizure frequency declined from 5.18 seizures per month to 3.64 seizures per month at 6 weeks and to 4.2 seizures per month at 12 weeks. The median percent change in seizure frequency was =26.9% at six weeks, and =10.7% at 12 weeks (not significant, Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, P > 0.34).
Conclusions: High-dose oral Vitamin D3, 5000 IU/day was safe and well tolerated in subjects with epilepsy. Vitamin D levels increased significantly at 6 and 12 weeks but never exceeded potentially toxic levels, defined as >100 ng/ml. To reduce variability, we will now recruit subjects who only have three or more seizures per month.
Source : Epilepsy & Behaviour
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Can Music Help People with Epilepsy?
Scans show brainwaves of those with disorder appear to synchronize with music
The brains of people with epilepsy appear to react to music differently from the brains of those who do not have the disorder, a finding that could lead to new therapies to prevent seizures, according to research presented at the American Psychological Association’s 123rd Annual Convention.
“We believe that music could potentially be used as an intervention to help people with epilepsy,” said Christine Charyton, PhD, adjunct assistant professor and visiting assistant professor of neurology at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, who presented the research.
Approximately 80 percent of epilepsy cases are what is known as temporal lobe epilepsy, in which the seizures appear to originate in the temporal lobe of the brain. Music is processed in the auditory cortex in this same region of the brain, which was why Charyton wanted to study the effect of music on the brains of people with epilepsy.
Charyton and her colleagues compared the musical processing abilities of the brains of people with and without epilepsy using an electroencephalogram, where electrodes are attached to the scalp to detect and record brainwave patterns. They collected data from 21 patients who were in the epilepsy monitoring unit at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center between September 2012 and May 2014.
The researchers recorded brainwave patterns while patients listened to 10 minutes of silence, followed by either Mozart’s Sonata in D Major, Andante Movement II (K448) or John Coltrane’s rendition of My Favorite Things, a second 10-minute period of silence, the other of the two musical pieces and finally a third 10-minute period of silence. The order of the music was randomized, meaning some participants listened to Mozart first and other participants listened to Coltrane first.
The researchers found significantly higher levels of brainwave activity in participants when they were listening to music. More important, said Charyton, brainwave activity in people with epilepsy tended to synchronize more with the music, especially in the temporal lobe, than in people without epilepsy.
“We were surprised by the findings,” said Charyton. “We hypothesized that music would be processed in the brain differently than silence. We did not know if this would be the same or different for people with epilepsy.”
While she does not believe music would replace current epilepsy therapy, Charyton said this research suggests music might be a novel intervention used in conjunction with traditional treatment to help prevent seizures in people with epilepsy.
Source : Newswise
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Fish oil (n-3 fatty acids) in drug resistant epilepsy: a randomised placebo-controlled crossover study
- Christopher M DeGiorgio,
- Patrick R Miller,
- Ronald Harper,
- Jeffrey Gornbein,
- Lara Schrader,
- Jason Soss,
- Sheba Meymandi
Background n-3 fatty acids inhibit neuronal excitability and reduce seizures in animal models. High-dose fish oil has been explored in two randomised trials in drug resistant epilepsy with negative results. We performed a phase II randomised controlled crossover trial of low-dose and high-dose fish oil in participants with drug resistant epilepsy to explore whether low-dose or high-dose fish oil reduces seizures or improves cardiovascular health.
Methods Randomised placebo-controlled trial of low-dose and high-dose fish oil versus placebo (corn oil, linoleic acid) in 24 participants with drug resistant epilepsy. A three-period crossover design was utilised lasting 42 weeks, with three 10-week treatment periods and two 6-week washout periods. All participants were randomised in double-blind fashion to receive placebo, high dose or low dose in different sequences. The primary outcome was per cent change in total seizure frequency.
Findings Low-dose fish oil (3 capsules/day, 1080 mg eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid) was associated with a 33.6% reduction in seizure frequency compared with placebo. Low-dose fish oil was also associated with a mild but significant reduction in blood pressure. High-dose fish oil was no different than placebo in reducing seizures or improving cardiac risk factors.
Interpretation In this phase II randomised crossover trial, low-dose fish oil was effective in reducing seizures compared with placebo. The magnitude of improvement is similar to that of recent antiepileptic drug trials in drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). The results indicate that low-dose fish oil may reduce seizures and improve the health of people with epilepsy. These findings justify a large multicentre randomised trial of low-dose fish oil (n-3 fatty acids <1080 mg/day) in drug resistant epilepsy.
Source : J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
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Antiepileptic and Antipsychotic Effects of Ipomoea Reniformis (convolvulaceae) in Experimental Animals
K. K. Chitra, S. Babitha, Sharanbasappa Durg, B. S. Thippeswamy, V. P. Veerapur, S. Badami
Ipomoea reniformis Chaos is claimed in Indian traditional medical practice to be useful in the treatment of epilepsy and neurological disorders. In the present study, pretreatment effect of methanolic extract of Ipomoea reniformis on epilepsy and psychosis was evaluated in rodents using standard procedures. Besides evaluating epileptic and behavioral parameters, neurotransmitters such as Gamma-Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) in epilepsy and in psychosis dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin contents in the rodent brain were estimated. The extract pretreatment reduced maximal electro shock; Isoniazid (INH) and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures and also significantly inhibited the attenuation of brain GABA levels by INH and PTZ in mice. These results suggested that the observed beneficial effect in epilepsy may be by enhancing the GABAergic system. The test drug also inhibited the apomorphine induced climbing and stereotyped behavior and showed significantly reduced levels of brain dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin which may be due to blocking of central dopaminergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic pathways or by enhancing the GABAergic system. The results obtained in present study suggest that the title plant possesses antiepileptic and antipsychotic activities in rodents.
Source : Journal of Natural Remedies
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Pharmacological Role of Alstonia scholaris Leaves for its Anticonvulsant and Sedative Action
Rajbala Singh1 Harikesh Maurya1 Imran Kazmil*1 , Muhammad Afzal*1 Garima Kandpal 1
Gaurav Gupta2 , Prashant Kumar1 , Firoz Anwar*1
1 Siddhartha Institute of Pharmacy, Near I.T. Park, Sahastradhara Road, Dehradun, India
2 School of Pharmacy, Internationa l Medical University, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur, 57000 Malaysia
Background & Objectives: Alstonia scholaris leaves were used to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative potential on the basis of its traditional and folklore uses in epilepsy as containing chemical constituents like alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids and flavonoids,
which show the CNS activity. On the basis of its folk use, the study was designed to evaluate the anticonvulsant and sedative potential of ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris (EEAS) leaves.
For anticonvulsant study - MES induced convulsion, Isoniazid induced convulsion and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced
convulsion methods were used. For sedative study - Locomotor activity of mice using actophotometer and pentobarbitone induced
sleeping time model in mice were performed.
Results and discussion:
The extract is effective in Isoniazid, PTZ and Maximal Electroshock (MES) induced convulsion model. 400mg/kg dose of the EEAS shows the maximum protection of epilepsy induced by the MES and the chemical convulsant as compared to low dose (200 mg/kg) of Alstonia scholaris. EEAS also possess the sedative activity when tested in Pentobarbitone induced sleep, further it decreases the locomotor activity in mice. The 400mg/kg extract potentiate the effect of Pentobarbitone.
The study concluded that the ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris possesses antiepileptic and sedative potential.
These effects may be due to alteration in the GABA mediated chloride channel of neurons associated with sleep activity
Source : American Journal of Phytomedicine & Clinical Therapeutics (AJPCT)
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Anticonvulsant Effect of Berberis integerrima L. Root Extracts in Mice
Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad Ramezani, Hojjat Shafaei,Elahe Taghiabadi
Berberis integerrima is a member of Berberidaceae family. Berberine is one of the main constituents of this plant, having neuroprotective effect on central nervous system diseases. In this study, the anticonvulsant activity of methanolic extract, and hydromethanolic fraction, and chloroform fraction of B integerrima was assessed. The anticonvulsant effect of B integerrima was investigated using both pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure models. The LD50 value of the methanolic extract was 302.676mg/kg. In the PTZ test, methanolic extract (140 and 200mg/kg, i.p., p<0.01), hydromethanolic fraction (200mg/kg, p<0.01), and chloroform fraction (200mg/kg, p<0.01) increased the onset time of hind limb tonic extensions (HLTEs). The protective effect against mortality (convulsion survivors/animals tested) was 2/8 in methanolic extract, and 3/8 in hydromethanolic fraction at a dose of 200mg/kg and in chloroform fraction at a dose of 140mg/kg. In the MES test, this plant did not display any significant effect in reducing HLTE duration. According to phytochemical screening, methanolic extract contained alkaloids and tannins. The present study, conducted in mice, indicated that B integerrima has anticonvulsant activity in PTZ-induced seizures. It is concluded that B integerrima may be useful in petit mal epilepsy.
Source : Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
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