Research - Endometriosis
Kuntai Capsule Inhibited Endometriosis via Inducing Apoptosis in a Rat Mode
lRuihua Zhong,1 Aying Ma,1 Jianping Zhu,2 Guoting Li,1 Shuwu Xie,1 Zhao Li,1 Youlun Gui,1 and Yan Zhu1
We evaluated the effectiveness of Kuntai Capsule (KTC) for treating endometriosis using rat model and investigated its preliminary mechanism of action involved. SD rats were implanted with endometrial tissues and treated with KTC for three weeks. Then, laparotomy was performed to examine volume changes of the autografts. The serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, E2, and P4 were measured through ELISA. TUNEL was performed to analyze the apoptosis on ectopic endometrium. Protein levels of caspases 8, 9, and 3 and cytochrome c in the ectopic and eutopic endometrium were measured by western blotting. Results showed that KTC significantly decreased the volumes of ectopic endometrium. The level of TNF-α increased and E2decreased in the KTC treatment groups. TUNEL and western blot assay showed that KTC could induce apoptosis of endometriotic tissues, accompanied with the increased protein expression of caspases 8 and 9, activated caspase-3, and cytochrome c in a dose-dependent manner. However, these protein expression profiles were not affected in eutopic endometrium. Our findings suggest that KTC could inhibit the growth of ectopic endometrial tissue through upregulating the level of TNF-α and its downstream signaling, including caspases and cytochrome c.
Source : Journal Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Can Herbal Medicines Improve Cellular Immunity Patterns in Endometriosis?
Harris T1* and Vlass AM2
Endometriosis is a heterogenous, and oestrogen dependant inflammatory disease that is characterised by morphological and biologically active endometrium (composed of endometrial-type glandular tissue and stroma), that is present in sites outside of the uterine cavity. The disease is complex in nature with the implantation of tissue occurring due to phenomena known as retrograde menstruation. While this is considered central to the pathogenesis of endometriosis, 90% of women that experience this event do not have endometriosis, while the remaining 10% of this population do have endometriosis. The role of the immune system may explain why some women develop endometriosis and why others don’t. Alterations in the immune system (Increased TNF-α, PGE2 and reduced NK cells) have been proposed to play a key role in the establishment of endometrial implants and sustained its growth and development. In order to treat aspects of immunity, it is important to improve relative oestrogen excess which triggers a pro-inflammatory cascade and to regulate immune system abnormalities. With continued unopposed oestrogens, the immune system will not regulate, so this must be a primary treatment aim. Prostaglandin synthesis must be regulated to ensure normal uterine function, healthy flow of menstruation and reducing pain experienced. Key herbs that help address inflammation, immune alterations and oestrogen clearance include Turmeric, Echinacea, Green tea, Caledula and Gotu cola. These herbs have multi-factorial actions that address the underpinning pathology of endometriosis and help rectify and improve reproductive function.
Source : Journal Medicinal Aromatic Plants
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Effect of GuiXiong Xiaoyi Wan in Treatment of Endometriosis on Rats
Zhixing Jin, 1 Li Wang, 2 and Zhiling Zhu 2 , *
Objective. To evaluate the effect of GuiXiong Xiaoyi Wan (GXXYW) on the development of endometriosis in a rat model. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats with surgically induced endometriosis were randomly treated with low-dose GXXYW, high-dose GXXYW, or vehicle (negative control) for 28 days. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess cell proliferation in the lesions. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase- (TdT-) mediated dUTP biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) method was performed to analyse the apoptosis induced by GuiXiong Xiaoyi Wan. The percentages of CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+ lymphocytes, and CD8+ lymphocytes in the spleens of the rats were evaluated using flow cytometric analysis.
Results. Treatment with GXXYW significantly decreased the lesion size, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced apoptosis in endometriotic tissue. The spleens of GXXYW-treated rats also demonstrated a significant increase in the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the percentage of CD8+ lymphocytes.
Conclusions. These results suggest that, in a rat model, GXXYW may be effective in the suppression of the growth of endometriosis, possibly through the inhibition of cell proliferation, the induction of apoptosis of endometriotic cells, and the regulation of the immune system.
Source : eCAM
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Preliminary Study of Quercetin Affecting the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis on Rat Endometriosis Model
Yang Cao,1 Meng-fei Zhuang,1 Ying Yang,2 Shu-wu Xie,3 Jin-gang Cui,1 Lin Cao,3 Ting-ting Zhang,1 and Yan Zhu3
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China
2Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, The First People’s Hospital of Yinchuan, Ningxia 750001, China
3Department of Reproductive Pharmacology, NPFPC Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, Shanghai 200032, China
In this study, the endometriosis rats model was randomly divided into 6 groups: model control group, ovariectomized group, Gestrinone group, and quercetin high/medium/low dose group. Rats were killed after 3 weeks of administration. The expression levels of serum FSH and LH were detected by ELISA. The localizations and quantities of ERα, ERβ, and PR were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot. The results showed that the mechanism of quercetin inhibiting the growth of ectopic endometrium on rat endometriosis model may be through the decreasing of serum FSH and LH levels and then reducing local estrogen content to make the ectopic endometrium atrophy. Quercetin can decrease the expression of ERα, ERβ, and PR in hypothalamus, pituitary, and endometrium, thereby inhibiting estrogen and progesterone binding to their receptors to play the role of antiestrogen and progesterone.
According to the above results, the mechanism of quercetin inhibiting the growth of ectopic endometrium in rat model is that quercetin can be combined with the receptor ERα of the HPGA axis, feedback inhibits the release of GnRH, and exerts its antigonadotropic activity to inhibit the secretion of FSH and LH and to reduce the level of serum E2, causing the deficiency of hormone supplement in ectopic endometrium, thus reducing the height of endometrial epithelial layer and the number of ectopic endometrial glands, eventually leading to the atrophy of ectopic endometrial epithelial. However, in summary, ER and PR distributed in the reproductive system and the central nervous system play different roles, and how quercetin regulates their expression and changes the downstream pathways related with ER and PR is worthy of future study.
Source ; Journal Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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The impact of the herbal formula Qing Bao Zhu Yu Tang in the treatment of endometriosis
Elizabeth Ohm, L. Ac., DAOM (deceased), Lawrence J. Ryan*
Retrospective chart review research method was employed to analyze data from 120 cases of women who were treated for endometriosis using an herbal formulation known as Qing Bao Zhu Yu Tang. The cases were analyzed in three categories as per the most common condition accompanying endometriosis. The three groups included those where endometriosis was associated with infertility (n=53), those with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) (n=7) and those with ovarian cysts (n=38). Data from the charts were analyzed in terms of the impact of the Qing Bao Zhu Yu Tang formula on endometriosis and the accompanying conditions. The results evidenced the positive impact of the formula. The pain effectiveness level survey rating for the entire sample of 120 patient charts shows that 116 patients (96.7% responded with indication of some level of effectiveness. From the total sample of 120 patients, the satisfaction survey shows that 111 patients (92/5%) responded in the “satisfied” range. The results were discussed regarding implications for practice, and recommendations were made for future related research.
As indicated by the data generated in the current study it is observed that the Qing Bao Zhu Yu Tang formula is effective in the treatment of endometriosis. It is also effective in the treatment of infertility, PCOS and ovarian cysts, vaginal discharges. Consistent with the findings of the current study, TCM practitioners who treat ob-gyn cases should consider using the Qing Bao Zhu Yu Tan formula.
Source : Intl Journal of Herbal Medicine
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The Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Endometriosis: A Review of Utilization and Mechanism
Sai Kong,1 Yue-Hui Zhang,2,3 Chen-Fang Liu,1 Ilene Tsui,4 Ying Guo,1 Bei-Bei Ai,1 and Feng-Juan Han2
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China
3Center for Post-Doctoral Studies, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China
4Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033, USA
Endometriosis (EM) is one of the common gynecological conditions causing menstrual and pelvic pain and affects 10%–15% of women of reproductive age. In recent years, the complementary and alternative medical (CAM) treatment for EM has become popular due to the few adverse reactions reported. The CAM therapy for EM includes several different treatments such as herbs (herbal prescription, extract, and patent), acupuncture, microwave physiotherapy, and Chinese herb medicine enema (CHM enema). These CAM therapies are effective at relieving dysmenorrhoea, shrinking adnexal masses, and promoting pregnancy, with less unpleasant side effects when compared to hormonal and surgical treatments. In this review, we focus on the status quo of CAM on EM and try to identify therapeutic efficacy and mechanisms based on some clinical and experimental studies. We hope to provide some instructive suggestions for clinical treatment and experimental research in the future.
Source : Journal Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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