Research - Cherries
A Review of the Health Benefits of Cherries
Darshan S. Kelley,1,2,* Yuriko Adkins,1,2 and Kevin D. Laugero1,2
Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules); all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2) published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries. Most of these studies were less than 2 weeks of duration (range 5 h to 3 months) and served the equivalent of 45 to 270 cherries/day (anthocyanins 55-720 mg/day) in single or split doses. Two-thirds of these studies were randomized and placebo controlled. Consumption of cherries decreased markers for oxidative stress in 8/10 studies; inflammation in 11/16; exercise-induced muscle soreness and loss of strength in 8/9; blood pressure in 5/7; arthritis in 5/5, and improved sleep in 4/4. Cherries also decreased hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL) in diabetic women, and VLDL and TG/HDL in obese participants. These results suggest that consumption of sweet or tart cherries can promote health by preventing or decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.
Source : Journal Nutrients
Link to Full Article
Effect of dark sweet cherry powder consumption on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and biomarkers of gut health in obese db/db mice
Jose F. Garcia-Mazcorro,1,2 Nara N. Lage,3,4 Susanne Mertens-Talcott,4 Stephen Talcott,4 Boon Chew,4Scot E. Dowd,5 Jorge R. Kawas,6 and Giuliana D. Noratto4
Cherries are fruits containing fiber and bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenolics) with the potential of helping patients with diabetes and weight disorders, a phenomenon likely related to changes in the complex host-microbiota milieu. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cherry supplementation on the gut bacterial composition, concentrations of caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and biomarkers of gut health using an in vivo model of obesity. Obese diabetic (db/db) mice received a supplemented diet with 10% cherry powder (supplemented mice, n = 12) for 12 weeks; obese (n = 10) and lean (n = 10) mice served as controls and received a standard diet without cherry. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze the gut microbiota; SCFAs and biomarkers of gut health were also measured using standard techniques. According to 16S sequencing, supplemented mice harbored a distinct colonic microbiota characterized by a higher abundance of mucin-degraders (i.e., Akkermansia) and fiber-degraders (the S24-7 family) as well as lower abundances of Lactobacillus and Enterobacteriaceae. Overall this particular cherry-associated colonic microbiota did not resemble the microbiota in obese or lean controls based on the analysis of weighted and unweighted UniFrac distance metrics. qPCR confirmed some of the results observed in sequencing, thus supporting the notion that cherry supplementation can change the colonic microbiota. Moreover, the SCFAs detected in supplemented mice (caproate, methyl butyrate, propionate, acetate and valerate) exceeded those concentrations detected in obese and lean controls except for butyrate. Despite the changes in microbial composition and SCFAs, most of the assessed biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and intestinal health in colon tissues and mucosal cells were similar in all obese mice with and without supplementation. This paper shows that dietary supplementation with cherry powder for 12 weeks affects the microbiota and the concentrations of SCFAs in the lower intestinal tract of obese db/db diabetic mice. These effects occurred in absence of differences in most biomarkers of inflammation and other parameters of gut health. Our study prompts more research into the potential clinical implications of cherry consumption as a dietary supplement in diabetic and obese human patients.
Source : PeerJ
Link to Full Article
Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males
Levers K1, Dalton R1, Galvan E1, Goodenough C1, O'Connor A1, Simbo S1, Barringer N2, Mertens-Talcott SU3, Rasmussen C1, Greenwood M1, Riechman S4, Crouse S5, Kreider RB1.
BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress.
METHODS:Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures.
RESULTS:Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC whole blood lymphocyte counts (p = 0.013) from pre-lift were greater compared to P, but TC lymphocyte counts returned to pre-lift values quicker than P.
CONCLUSION:Short-term supplementation of Montmorency powdered tart cherries surrounding a single bout of resistance exercise, appears to be an effective dietary supplement to attenuate muscle soreness, strength decrement during recovery, and markers of muscle catabolism in resistance trained individuals.
Source J Int Soc Sports Nutr.
Link to full Article
Orally Delivered Sour Cherry Seed Extract (SCSE) Affects Cardiovascular and Hematological Parameters in Humans
- Zoltan Csiki1,†,
- Agnes Papp-Bata2,†,
- Attila Czompa3,
- Aniko Nagy1,4,
- Istvan Bak3,
- Istvan Lekli3,
- Andras Javor4,
- David D. Haines3,
- Gyorgy Balla5 and
- Arpad Tosaki
In the present study, we investigated the effects of sour cherry seed extract (SCSE) on a variety of systemic processes that contribute to general health and viability of human subjects. The experiments were conducted according to a double-blind protocol in which six healthy individuals were administered 250-mg/day SCSE for 14 days, while four were treated with placebo. Peripheral blood was collected before and after the treatment period. Samples were analyzed for levels of selected cells, enzymes, or metabolites. Subjects that received SCSE showed increases in the values of mean cell volume, serum transferrin, mean peroxidase index, and representation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. On the other hand, decreases were observed in circulating neutrophils and ferritin levels. Changes observed in the present study do not fit into a clear pattern that might yield additional in-depth understanding of SCSE-mediated alterations in physiologic responses. The most encouraging result of the present study is the absence of any indication of toxicity by subjects consuming the extract.
.... Ongoing efforts to gain an in-depth understanding of the effects of this substance include experiments described in the present report and a phase I clinical trial of SCSE delivered transdermally to patients with osteoarthritis. This treatment resulted in significant systemic amelioration of multiple disease parameters (including joint pain) and augmented protective T lymphocyte activity, with no associated toxicity (Mahmoud et al., 2014). These outcomes and ongoing results of work in progress suggest that SCSE will be safe and effective for a wide range of human applications.
Source : Phytotherapy Research
Link to full Article
Combinatorial Treatment of Tart Cherry Extract and Essential Fatty Acids Reduces Cognitive Impairments and Inflammation in the mu-p75 Saporin-Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease
Jessica J. Matchynski,1,2,3 Steven A. Lowrance,1,2 Colleen Pappas,1,2 Julien Rossignol,1,2,4 Nicole Puckett,1,2 Michael Sandstrom,2,5 and Gary L. Dunbar1,2,4,5,6
1Field Neurosciences Laboratory for Restorative Neurology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, USA
.2Program in Neuroscience, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, USA.
3Department of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, Rochester College, Rochester, Michigan, USA.
4College of Medicine, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, USA.
5Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, Michigan, USA.6Field Neurosciences Institute, Saginaw, Michigan, USA.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than five million Americans and is characterized by a progressive loss of memory, loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and an increase in oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplements of antioxidants and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may reduce the cognitive deficits in AD patients. The current study tested a combinatorial treatment of antioxidants from tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids from Nordic fish and emu oils for reducing cognitive deficits in the mu-p75 saporin (SAP)–induced mouse model of AD. Mice were given daily gavage treatments of Cerise® Total-Body-Rhythm™ (TBR; containing tart cherry extract, Nordic fish oil, and refined emu oil) or vehicle (methylcellulose) for 2 weeks before intracerebroventricular injections of the cholinergic toxin, mu-p75 SAP, or phosphate-buffered saline. The TBR treatments continued for an additional 17 days, when the mice were tested on a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Results indicate that TBR decreased the SAP-induced cognitive deficits assessed by the object-recognition, place-recognition, and Morris-water-maze tasks. Histological examination of the brain tissue indicated that TBR protected against SAP-induced inflammatory response and loss of cholinergic neurons in the area around the medial septum. These findings indicate that TBR has the potential to serve as an adjunctive treatment which may help reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in disorders involving cholinergic deficits, such as AD.
Source Journal of Medicinal Food
Link to Full Article
Researchers Say Tart Cherries Have ‘the Highest Anti-Inflammatory Content of Any Food’
Tart cherries may help reduce chronic inflammation, especially for the millions of Americans suffering from debilitating joint pain and arthritis, according to new research from Oregon Health & Science University presented today at the American College of Sports Medicine Conference (ACSM) in San Francisco, Calif.1 In fact, the researchers suggest tart cherries have the “highest anti-inflammatory content of any food” and can help people with osteoarthritis manage their disease.In a study of twenty women ages 40 to 70 with inflammatory osteoarthritis, the researchers found that drinking tart cherry juice twice daily for three weeks led to significant reductions in important inflammation markers – especially for women who had the highest inflammation levels at the start of the study.
“With millions of Americans looking for ways to naturally manage pain, it’s promising that tart cherries can help, without the possible side effects often associated with arthritis medications,” said Kerry Kuehl, M.D, Dr.PH., M.S., Oregon Health & Science University, principal study investigator. “I’m intrigued by the potential for a real food to offer such a powerful anti-inflammatory benefit – especially for active adults.”
Often characterized as “wear and tear” arthritis, osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. Athletes are often at a greater risk for developing the condition, given their excessive joint use that can cause a breakdown in cartilage and lead to pain and injury, according to the Arthritis Foundation.
The inflammation benefits could be particularly important for athletes, according to Kuehl’s previous research. In a past study he found that people who drank tart cherry juice while training for a long distance run reported significantly less pain after exercise than those who didn’t.2
Go Red Instead to Manage Pain
Along with providing the fruit’s bright red color, the antioxidant compounds in tart cherries – called anthocyanins – have been specifically linked to high antioxidant capacity and reduced inflammation, at levels comparable to some well-known pain medications.3
Previous research on tart cherries and osteoarthritis conducted by researchers at Baylor Research Institute found that a daily dose of tart cherries (as cherry extract) helped reduce osteoarthritis pain by more than 20 percent for the majority of men and women.4 And the same compounds linked to cherries’ arthritis benefits have now shown promise for athletes and sports recovery to help relieve muscle and joint soreness.
According to Director of Sports Nutrition at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center for Sports Medicine, Leslie Bonci, MPH, RD, CSSD, LDN, who has incorporated tart cherries into the training menu of both her professional athletes and active clients as a natural and easy way to manage pain that also tastes great, “Why not eat red when there’s so much science to support the anti-inflammatory benefits of this Super Fruit? And for athletes whose palates prefer the tart-sweet flavor profile of tart cherries, it’s the optimal ingredient.”
Available every day of the year in dried, frozen and juice forms, tart cherries are a versatile ingredient to include in any training or inflammation-fighting diet.
To learn more about the body of research supporting tart cherries’ pain-fighting properties, visit www.choosecherries.com to download The Red Report. There, you can also reference The Red Recovery Routine, a guide to help people train to manage pain with tart cherries.
Source : Newswise
Link to Source