Research - Tinnitus
Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® versus pentoxifylline in chronic tinnitus: a randomized, double‑blind clinical trial
Klára Procházková1,2 · Ivan Šejna1,2 · Jan Skutil1,2 · Aleš Hahn1,2
Background Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761® and pentoxifylline are frequently prescribed for the treatment of tinnitus. Objective To compare the treatment efects of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761R and pentoxifylline. Setting The study was performed at Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital Královské Vinohrady and 3rd Medical Faculty, Charles University in Prague.
Method Patients with sub-chronic or chronic tinnitus were enrolled in double-blind trial and randomized to receive 120 mg EGb 761® or 600 mg pentoxifylline, each twice a day and in double-dummy fashion over a 12-week period. Main outcome measure changes in 11-Point Box Scales for tinnitus loudness and annoyance, the abridged Tinnitus Questionnaire (Mini-TQ), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS).
Results Full analysis set for efcacy analysis comprised 197 patients (EGb 761®, 99; pentoxifylline 98). For both treatment groups, signifcant improvements were observed in the Mini-TQ, the 11-Point Box Scales for tinnitus loudness and annoyance, the HADS anxiety score and the SDS. There was no relevant diference with regard to tinnitus-related outcomes between the two treatment groups. 20 adverse events were documented in EGb 761® group and 36 adverse events were reported for pentoxifylline group. No serious adverse event was reported during the study.
Conclusion EGb 761® and pentoxifylline were similarly efective in reducing the loudness and annoyance of tinnitus as well as overall sufering of the patients. The incidence of adverse events was lower in the EGb 761® group.
Source : International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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Effects of C-phycocyanin and Spirulina on Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus, Expression of NMDA Receptor and Inflammatory Genes
Juen-Haur Hwang, Jin-Cherng Chen, Yin-Ching Chan
Effects of C-phycocyanin (C-PC), the active component of Spirulina platensis water extract on the expressions of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2) genes in the cochlea and inferior colliculus (IC) of mice were evaluated after tinnitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of salicylate. The results showed that 4-day salicylate treatment (unlike 4-day saline treatment) caused a significant increase in NR2B, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNAs expression in the cochlea and IC. On the other hand, dietary supplementation with C-PC or Spirulina platensis water extract significantly reduced the salicylate-induced tinnitus and down-regulated the mRNAs expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β mRNAs, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC of mice. The changes of protein expression levels were generally correlated with those of mRNAs expression levels in the IC for above genes.
This experimental study showed that the both of spirulina platensis water extract and its active component (C-PC) could reduce salicylate-induced tinnitus and reduce expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β, and COX-2 genes in the cochlea and IC....Therefore, we suggested that the beneficial effects of spirulina or C-PC on tinnitus mainly via inhibiting mRNA expression of NR2B, TNF-α, IL-1β, and/or COX-2 genes.....
Source : PLOSone
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