Research - Diet and cancer
Low Fat Diet Helps Postmenopausal Women Avoid Deadly Breast Cancer
A large randomized clinical trial found that postmenopausal women who stayed on a low fat diet for 8 years had a reduced risk of death from invasive breast cancers and improved survival rates compared with women who did not follow the dietary regimen.1 The study was presented at a clinical trial plenary session at the American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, held April 16-20, 2016 in New Orleans, Louisiana.
This analysis used data from 48,835 postmenopausal women who participated in the randomized, controlled, dietary modification trial that was part of the Women's Health Initiative. Though an association between dietary fat intake and breast cancer has been observed for about half a century, this study sought to clarify the effects of a low-fat dietary pattern on breast cancer.
The participating women were age 50 to 79 years, had no prior breast cancer, normal mammograms, and normal dietary fat intake. Of those, 19,541 women were put on a low-fat diet with nutritionist-led group sessions that sought to reduce fat intake reduction to 20% of energy and increase the consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grain. The other 29,294 women in the trial followed their usual dietary patterns.
After about 8 years of remaining on the low fat diet, 1,767 of the women were diagnosed with breast cancer. Researchers found the breast cancer overall survival from diagnosis was higher in the dietary group: 82% versus 78%. The researchers said this reduction is due, in part, to better survival following breast cancer diagnosis.
"This was the first time we had examined the deaths after breast cancer among this group, and we found that a sustained low-fat diet increased the survival rates among postmenopausal women after a breast cancer diagnosis," said presenting author Rowan Chlebowski, MD, PhD, of the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute in California. "The study also suggests that women would need to remain on the low fat diets to maintain the benefits of the dietary intervention."
The 2 groups of women had similar breast cancer characteristics, including size, nodal status, and distribution of poor prognosis, triple-negative cancers and HER2-positive cancers. However, the dietary group had fewer progesterone-receptor-negative cancers (28.4% versus 33%). In addition, researchers noted lower cardiovascular disease mortality in the dietary group.
1. Chlebowski RT, Aragaki AK, Anderson GL, et al. Low-fat dietary pattern and breast cancer mortality in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized trial. Abstract CT043. Presented at American Association for Cancer Research Annual Meeting, held April 16-20, 2016 in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Source : Oncology Nurse Advisor
Link to Source
Sugar and Cancer: Mitigating the Affects of Diet on Cancer
Food speaks to our genes; its message or signal can turn the immune system on or off. Consumption of a high carbohydrate or sugar diet can increase risk of cancer. The affect of diet on cancer risk and prevention were explained in an oral presentation at the 2nd AnnualOncology Nurse Advisor Navigation Summit.1
Epigenetics is the variations caused by external modifications to DNA such as environment, exercise, stress, meditation, spirituality, and diet, explained Sharon Meyer, DiplON, CNC, of Integrative Nutrition. Sugar or glucose feeds cancer, although not directly. Insulin chaperones sugar or glucose into the cells. Insulin docks onto an insulin receptor on the cell surface enabling sugar/glucose to enter the cell, where the mitochondria convert it into energy. Too much sugar increases blood sugar and insulin levels. Over time, healthy cells are no longer able to receive sugar. Insulin receptors become sensitive to insulin and no longer respond; this is insulin resistance.
Cancer cells are poor energy metabolizers. Their surfaces are covered with insulin receptors that continually chaperone glucose into the cancer cells. Therefore, even when healthy cells become insulin resistant, cancer cells continue to accept and metabolize sugar. Insulin releases glucose into the cancer cells, it goes through the nucleus causing an epigenetic effect of turning on genes that prompt cell division. Meyer described this effect as “Like a foot on a gas pedal, stimulating cancer growth.”
“If the foods you ate could turn off the expression of your cancer genes, and turn on tumor suppressor genes, what would you have for dinner?” asked Meyer. Her answer: Vegetables. A lot of them and a variety of them. “Eat from the rainbow,” advised Meyer.
Vegetables are high in phytochemicals, which protect plants from the environment, stressors, sun, toxins, and more; humans need phytochemicals to be healthy. They are major communicators to our genes. They support detoxification, boost immunity, improve heart health, promote healthy estrogen metabolism, stimulate apoptosis, reduce inflammation, and feed the gut bugs (microbiome).
Other components of a healthy diet include fats and oils and protein. Healthy choices for fats and oils include foods such as avocadoes, fish (eg, sardines, herring, salmon), nuts and seeds, nut butters, butter, and ghee. Extra virgin olive oil, flaxseed oil, coconut oil/butter/milk, nut oils (eg, walnut, hazelnut, macadamia), and avocado oils are better choices.
Protein sources include eggs, fish, poultry, beef, lamb, and lean pork. Whole-milk dairy and whey protein are other recommendations. Animal protein should be free-range, pasture raised, or organic, and wild fish.
In closing, Meyer's advice for patients with cancer is to eat appealing foods when they can, and not to stress over their diet. “Plenty of time to clean up later!”
1. Meyer S. Nutrition & Cancer. Oral presentation at: Oncology Nurse Advisor Navigation Summit; April 7-9, 2016; Orlando, FL.
Source : Oncology Nurse Advisor
Link to Source
Dietary intake of meat, fruits, vegetables, and selective micronutrients and risk of bladder cancer in the New England region of the United States
J W Wu1, A J Cross1, D Baris1, M H Ward1, M R Karagas2, A Johnson3, M Schwenn4, S Cherala5, J S Colt1, K P Cantor1,6, N Rothman1, D T Silverman1 and R Sinha1
- 1National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, 6120 Executive Blvd, Rockville, MD 20852, USA
- 2Dartmouth Medical School, Section of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1 Medical Center Drive, 7927 Rubin Building, Lebanon, NH 03756, USA
- 3Vermont Cancer Registry, 108 Cherry Street, Burlington, VT 05402, USA
- 4Maine Cancer Registry, 286 Water Street, Fourth Floor, 11 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333, USA
- 5New Hampshire department of Health and Human Services, 129 Pleasant Street, Concord, NH 03301, USA
- 6KP Cantor Environmental LLC, 708 Bonifant Street, Silver Spring, MD 20910, USA
Background: Despite many studies on diet and bladder cancer, there are areas that remain unexplored including meat mutagens, specific vegetable groups, and vitamins from diet.
Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of bladder cancer in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. A total of 1171 cases were ascertained through hospital pathology records and cancer registries from 2001 to 2004. Overall, 1418 controls were identified from the Department of Motor Vehicles (<65 years) and Center for Medicaid and Medicare Services (65–79 years) and were frequency-matched to cases by state, sex, and age (within 5 years). Diet was assessed with a self-administered Diet History Questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).
Results: Processed meat intake was positively associated with bladder cancer (highest vs lowest quartile OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.00–1.65; Ptrend=0.035), with a stronger association for processed red meat (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.08–1.84; Ptrend=0.024). There were no associations between intake of fruits or vegetables and bladder cancer. We did, however, observe an inverse association with vitamin B12 intake (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.61–0.99; P=0.019).
Conclusion: Vitamin B12 from diet may be protective against bladder cancer, whereas consuming processed meat may increase risk.
Source : British Journal of Cancer (May 2012)
Link to Full Study