Research - Osteoporosis
Zinc Improves the Bone Mechanical Strength in Ovariectomized Rat Model by Restoring Bone Composition and Hydroxyapatite Crystallite Dimension
Payal Bhardwaj1*, DurgVijay Rai1,2 and Mohan Lal Garg1
1Department of Biophysics, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
2Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Shobhit University, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
IntroductionOsteoporosis is one of the most common bone metabolic disorders that cause degradation of bones mechanical function as a result of changes in its material properties . The alterations in the bone composition and structure occur as a result of changes in metabolic conditions such as hormonal changes, steroids, dietary intake, and lifestyle [2,3]. Postmenopausal condition is the most common type of hormonal imbalances that is prevailing amongst women. The clinical importance of osteoporosis as a result of estrogen deficiency has been extensively investigated in current years because of the large number of people getting affected. The factors that contribute to bone strength include two parameters bone quantity and quality. Quantity is measured in terms of bone mineral density and bone quality includes arrangement or micro architecture of both the collagen and hydroxyapatite, and cellular activity . Large number of therapies for osteoporosis is available these days that fall into two categories: antiresorptive drugs, and anabolic drugs. However, these therapies encompass many adverse effects like malignant tumor formation with hormone therapy and gastrointestinal tolerance problems with bisphosphonates, which may exclude their long-term administration [5,6]. Thus, there is a need for an alternative therapy that can improve bone health without inducing adverse effects. Nutrition supplements such as vitamins , proteins  and amino acids  are well acknowledged to promote bone remodeling process and to augment mineral absorption.
.....Although immense debate still exists on the mechanism for osteoporosis and its reversal upon nutritional supplementation. These nutritional supplements impact the balance between formation and resorption processes on skeletal metabolism. Based on the results of the current work, we have concluded that supplemental intake of zinc may play preventive and therapeutic role for bone loss that are induced by postmenopausal condition. Zinc helps in maintaining the mechanical strength of the bone by restoring the bone composition and microstructure. However, further studies need to be carried out to find out the exact mechanism of zinc action on bone cells in the osteopenic condition.
Source : Journal Vitamin + Minerals
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Osteoporosis Recovery by Antrodia camphorata Alcohol Extracts through Bone Regeneration in SAMP8 Mice
Hen-Yu Liu,1,2 Chiung-Fang Huang,3 Chun-Hao Li,1,4 Ching-Yu Tsai,1,4 Wei-Hong Chen,1,4 Hong-Jian Wei,1,4 Ming-Fu Wang,5 Yueh-Hsiung Kuo,6,7 Mei-Leng Cheong,8,9 and Win-Ping Deng1,4,10
Antrodia camphorata has previously demonstrated the efficacy in treating cancer and anti-inflammation. In this study, we are the first to evaluate Antrodia camphorata alcohol extract (ACAE) for osteoporosis recovery in vitro with preosteoblast cells (MC3T3-E1) and in vivo with an osteoporosis mouse model established in our previous studies, ovariectomized senescence accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8). Our results demonstrated that ACAE treatment was slightly cytotoxic to preosteoblast at 25 μg/mL, by which the osteogenic gene expression (RUNX2, OPN, and OCN) was significantly upregulated with an increased ratio of OPG to RANKL, indicating maintenance of the bone matrix through inhibition of osteoclastic pathway. Additionally, evaluation by Alizarin Red S staining showed increased mineralization in ACAE-treated preosteoblasts. For in vivo study, our results indicated that ACAE inhibits bone loss and significantly increases percentage bone volume, trabecular bone number, and bone mineral density in OVX-SAMP8 mice treated with ACAE. Collectively, in vitro and in vivoresults showed that ACAE could promote osteogenesis and prevent bone loss and should be considered an evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine for osteoporosis therapy through the maintenance of bone health.
Source : Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women
Anne Cathrine Thorup,1 Max Norman Lambert,1 Henriette Strøm Kahr,2,3 Mette Bjerre,4 and Per Bendix Jeppesen1
Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (P<0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (P<0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed.
Source : Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Mollugin from Rubea cordifolia suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorbing activity in vitro and prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo
Osteopenic diseases, such as osteoporosis, are characterized by progressive and excessive bone resorption mediated by enhanced receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling. Therefore, downregulation of RANKL downstream signals may be a valuable approach for the treatment of bone loss-associated disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of the naphthohydroquinone mollugin on osteoclastogenesis and its function in vitro and in vivo. Mollugin efficiently suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts by inhibiting RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression. Mollugin reduced the phosphorylation of signaling pathways activated in the early stages of osteoclast differentiation, including the MAP kinase, Akt, and GSK3β and inhibited the expression of different genes associated with osteoclastogenesis, such as OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, integrin αν, integrin β3, cathepsin K, and ICAM-1. Furthermore, mice treated with mollugin showed significant restoration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss as indicated by micro-CT and histological analysis of femurs. Consequently, these results suggested that mollugin could be a novel therapeutic candidate for bone loss-associated disorders including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis.
Source : Journal Phytomedicine
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Antiosteoporotic activity and constituents of Podocarpium podocarpium
Qi Ye, Xue-Qin Ma, Chang-Ling Hu, Bing Lin, Li-Sheng Xu, Cheng-Jian Zheng, Lu-Ping Qin
Our study aimed to investigate the antiosteoporotic properties of the ethanol extract of Podocarpium podocarpum (DC.) Yang et Huang (PE) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to characterize the active constituents. As a result, PE significantly inhibited the increased urinary Ca excretion and activity of bone resorption markers including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), deoxypyridinoline crosslinks and cathepsin K in OVX rats, whereas exhibited little effects on the body, uterus and vagina weight. Detailed micro-CT analysis showed that PE notably enhanced bone quality, with increased bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume fraction (BVF), connectivity density (CD), tissue mineral content (TMC), tissue mineral density (TMD) and trabecular number (Tb. N), and decreased trabecular separation (Tb. Sp), in OVX animal. Those findings implied that PE had notable antiosteoporotic effect, especially effective in preventing bone resorption, with little side-effects on reproductive tissue. Further chemical investigation led to the isolation of 17 flavonoids, most of which showed significantly stimulatory effect on osteoblastic proliferation, ALP activity and mineralized nodes formation as well as inhibitory effect on osteoclastic TRAP activity in osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells. Our results indicated that PE, with abundant flavonoids, had remarkable antiosteoporotic activity and therefore can be a promising candidate for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency through herbal remedy.
Source : Journal Phytomedicine
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A targeted approach for evaluating preclinical activity of botanical extracts for support of bone health
Yumei Lina1, Mary A. Murraya1, I. Ross Garretta2a3, Gloria E. Gutierreza2a4, Jeffry S. Nymana2a5, Gregory Mundya2a6 †, David Fasta7, Kevin W. Gellenbecka1 c1, Amitabh Chandraa7 and Shyam Ramakrishnana1a8
a1 Nutrilite Health Institute, 5600 Beach Boulevard, Buena Park, CA 90622, USA
a2 OsteoScreen Ltd, 2040 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78023, USA
a3 9909 Charthouse Cove, Austin, TX 78730, USA
a4 Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238, USA
a5 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
a6 Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
a7 Access Business Group, 7575 East Fulton Avenue, Ada, MI 49355, USA
a8 The Himalaya Drug Company, Makali, Tumkur Road, Bangalore – 562123, India
Using a sequential in vitro/in vivo approach, we tested the ability of botanical extracts to influence biomarkers associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were found to exhibit anti-resorptive activity by inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in MG-63 cells and to reduce IL-1β-stimulated calvarial 45Ca loss. A combination of pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were shown to be effective at inhibiting bone loss in ovariectomised rats as demonstrated by standard histomorphometry, biomechanical and bone mineral density measurements. Quercetin and licorice extract exhibited bone formation activity as measured by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) promoter activation, increased expression of BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels, and promotion of bone growth in cultured mouse calvariae. A combination of quercetin and licorice extract demonstrated a potential for increasing bone mineral density in an intact female rat model as compared with controls. The results from this sequential in vitro/in vivo research model yielded botanical extract formulas that demonstrate significant potential benefits for bone health.
Source : The Journal of Nutritional Sciences
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Water extract of Spatholobus suberectus inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption
Hyunil Ha, Ki-Shuk Shim, Hyosun An, Taesoo Kim* and Jin Yeul Ma*
Osteoclasts are primarily responsible for bone resorption. In many pathological bone diseases including osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis, osteoclasts are excessively activated. Thus, controlling of osteoclasts would be an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of excessive bone loss. The stem of Spatholobus suberectus has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat blood stasis syndrome and arthritis in Asia. In the present study, we investigated the effects and action mechanism of water extract of the stem of Spatholobus suberectus (WESS) on osteoclast differentiation and function.
The effect of WESS on osteoclast differentiation was evaluated by counting tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated cells in bone marrow-derived macrophages system and murine bone marrow cell-osteoblast coculture system. Bone resorption activity of mature osteoclast was examined on a calcium phosphate-coated plate. Actin ring structure of osteoclasts was detected fluorescently by staining for F-actin. Activation of signaling pathways and induction of transcription factors required for osteoclastogenesis were investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting.
WESS effectively inhibited osteoclast differentiation from its precursors. The inhibitory effect of WESS on osteoclast differentiation was due to the suppression of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 expression, via preventing receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced early signaling pathways and decreasing c-Fos protein level in osteoclast precursors. Furthermore, WESS suppressed bone resorption activity of osteoclasts by disrupting actin ring structure.
This study demonstrated that WESS inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function. These results suggest that WESS has a potential for treating pathological bone diseases caused by excessive bone resorption.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Thai traditional massage increases biochemical markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial
Background The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover.
Methods Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period.
Results Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P <0.01), while there was no change in serum osteocalcin or CTX. During the control period, there was no significant change in P1NP, osteocalcin or CTX compared to baseline. When age and height were taken into account, P1NP in postmenopausal women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 +/- 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P <0.001), while no change in P1NP was found in the rest of the women (n = 26).
Conclusions Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted.
Source : BMC
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Probiotics Improve Bone Density In Animal Study
Probiotics -- the "good" bacteria found in fermented foods like yogurt -- could do the bones some good, according to a new study in mice.
While the findings have yet to be replicated in humans, Michigan State University researchers said they are hopeful their finding that probiotics seems to improve bone density could have implications for future osteoporosis medications -- especially since some current drugs come with less-than-desired side effects.
"We know that inflammation in the gut can cause bone loss, though it's unclear exactly why," study researcher Laura McCabe, a professor at Michigan State University, said in a statement. "The neat thing we found is that a probiotic can enhance bone density."
The study, published in the Journal of Cellular Physiology, involved feeding mice an inflammation-reducing probiotic called Lactobacillus reuteri for four weeks. Researchers found that male mice experienced a boost in bone density after being fed the probiotics, though female mice didn't experience this same benefit.
Probiotics are known to be good for digestion and aiding in some gastrointestinal conditions, the Mayo Clinic noted, but emerging research shows it could be have uses beyond the gut, too. A small study presented at a meeting of the American Heart Association showed that taking two daily doses of a specific kind of probiotic (Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242) seems to lower levels of total and "bad" cholesterol in people. And a review of studies, published in The Cochrane Library in 2011, showed that probiotics seem to have an effect against upper respiratory tract infections.
Source : Huffington Post
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Vitamin C Prevents Bone Loss in Animal Models
Researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine have shown for the first time in an animal model that vitamin C actively protects against osteoporosis, a disease affecting large numbers of elderly women and men in which bones become brittle and can fracture. The findings are published in the October 8 online edition of PLoS ONE. “This study has profound public health implications, and is well worth exploring for its therapeutic potential in people,” said lead researcher Mone Zaidi, MD, Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology, Diabetes and Bone Disease, and of Structural and Chemical Biology, and Director of the Mount Sinai Bone Program.
“The medical world has known for some time that low amounts of vitamin C can cause scurvy and brittle bones, and that higher vitamin C intake is associated with higher bone mass in humans, “said Dr. Zaidi. “What this study shows is that large doses of vitamin C, when ingested orally by mice, actively stimulate bone formation to protect the skeleton. It does this by inducing osteoblasts, or premature bone cells, to differentiate into mature, mineralizing specialty cells.”
The researchers worked with groups of mice whose ovaries had been removed, a procedure known to reduce bone density, and compared them with control mice that had “sham” operations, which left their ovaries intact. The mice with ovariectomies were divided into two groups, one of which was given large doses of vitamin C over eight weeks. The scientists measured the bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, femur, and tibia bones.
The mice who received an ovariectomy – and no vitamin C -- had a much lower bone mineral density (BMD) versus controls, whereas mice who received a ovariectomy and large doses of vitamin C, had roughly the same BMD as the controls, suggesting vitamin C prevented BMD loss in this group.
“Further research may discover that dietary supplements may help prevent osteoporosis in humans,” said Dr. Zaidi. “If so, the findings could be ultimately useful to developing nations where osteoporosis is prevalent and standard medications are sparse and expensive.”
Source : Newswise
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No Bones About It: Eating Dried Plums Helps Prevent Fractures and Osteoporosis, Study Suggests
When it comes to improving bone health in postmenopausal women -- and people of all ages, actually -- a Florida State University researcher has found a simple, proactive solution to help prevent fractures and osteoporosis: eating dried plums.
"Over my career, I have tested numerous fruits, including figs, dates, strawberries and raisins, and none of them come anywhere close to having the effect on bone density that dried plums, or prunes, have," said Bahram H. Arjmandi, Florida State's Margaret A. Sitton Professor and chairman of the Department of Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences in the College of Human Sciences. "All fruits and vegetables have a positive effect on nutrition, but in terms of bone health, this particular food is exceptional."
Arjmandi and a group of researchers from Florida State and Oklahoma State University tested two groups of postmenopausal women. Over a 12-month period, the first group, consisting of 55 women, was instructed to consume 100 grams of dried plums (about 10 prunes) each day, while the second -- a comparative control group of 45 women -- was told to consume 100 grams of dried apples. All of the study's participants also received daily doses of calcium (500 milligrams) and vitamin D (400 international units).
The group that consumed dried plums had significantly higher bone mineral density in the ulna (one of two long bones in the forearm) and spine, in comparison with the group that ate dried apples. This, according to Arjmandi, was due in part to the ability of dried plums to suppress the rate of bone resorption, or the breakdown of bone, which tends to exceed the rate of new bone growth as people age.
The group's research, was published in the British Journal of Nutrition. Arjmandi conducted the research with his graduate students Shirin Hooshmand, Sheau C. Chai and Raz L. Saadat of the College of Human Sciences; Dr. Kenneth Brummel-Smith, Florida State's Charlotte Edwards Maguire Professor and chairman of the Department of Geriatrics in the College of Medicine; and Oklahoma State University statistics Professor Mark E. Payton.
In the United States, about 8 million women have osteoporosis because of the sudden cessation of ovarian hormone production at the onset of menopause. What's more, about 2 million men also have osteoporosis.
"In the first five to seven postmenopausal years, women are at risk of losing bone at a rate of 3 to 5 percent per year," Arjmandi said. "However, osteoporosis is not exclusive to women and, indeed, around the age of 65, men start losing bone with the same rapidity as women."
Arjmandi encourages people who are interested in maintaining or improving their bone health to take note of the extraordinarily positive effect that dried plums have on bone density.
"Don't wait until you get a fracture or you are diagnosed with osteoporosis and have to have prescribed medicine," Arjmandi said. "Do something meaningful and practical beforehand. People could start eating two to three dried plums per day and increase gradually to perhaps six to 10 per day. Prunes can be eaten in all forms and can be included in a variety of recipes."
Source : Science Daily
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Therapeutic effects of Radix Dipsaci, Pyrola Herb, and Cynomorium Songaricum on bone metabolism of ovariectomized rats
Meijie Liu, Gary Guishan XIAO, Peijing Rong, Zhiguo Zhang, Jiazi Dong, Hongyan Zhao, Honghong Li, Yan Li, Jinghua Pan, Hong Liu, Wenlai Wang, Qinglin Zha and Dahong Ju
Background It is not yet determined whether herbs can be used as alternative medicines for therapy of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbal medicines, such as Radix Dipsaci (RDD), Pyrola Herb (PHD), and Cynomorium songaricum decoction (CSD), on osteoporotic rats induced by ovariectomy (OVX).
Methods OVX or sham operations were performed on 69 virgin Wistar rats that were divided into six groups: sham (sham, n = 12), OVX control group (OVX, n = 12), and OVX rats with treatments (diethylstilbestrol, DES, n = 12; RDD, n = 11, PHD, n = 11, and CSD, n = 11). Non-surgical rats served as normal control (NC, n = 12). The treatments began four weeks after surgery and lasted for 12 weeks. Bone mass and bone turnover were analyzed by histomorphometry. Levels of protein expression and mRNA of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts (OB) and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSC) were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
Results Compared to NC and sham rats, trabecular bone formation was significantly reduced in OVX rats, but restored in DES-treated rats. Treatment with either RDD or PHD enhanced trabecular bone formation remarkably. No significant change of bone formation was observed in CSD-treated rats. OPG expression of protein and mRNA was reduced significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. RANKL expression of protein and mRNA was increased significantly in OB and bMSC of OVX control rats. These effects were substantially reversed (increased in OPG and decreased in RANKL) by treatment with DES, RDD, or PHD in OB and bMSC of OVX rats. No significant changes in either OPG or RANKL expression were observed in OB and bMSC of OVX rats treated with CSD.
Conclusions Our study showed that RDD and PHD increased bone formation by stimulating overexpression of OPG and downregulation of RANKL in OB and bMSC. This suggests that RDD and PHD may be used as alternative therapeutic agents for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Source : BMC
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Phytoestrogens of Pachyrhizus erosus prevent Bone Loss in an Ovariectomized Rat Model of Osteoporosis
The effects of the etyl acetate extract of root of Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urb (EPE) on bone loss and in ovariectomized (ovx) rats model of osteoporosis were investigated. Forty-two 6-weeks-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to six groups as followed, sham-operated, OVX, OVX-Estradiol (2 μg/day), OVX-EPE 200 mg/kg BW, OVX-EPE 400 mg/kg BW, OVX-EPE 800 mg/kg BW for 4 weeks. The administration of EPE was given orally using a stomach tube. The results demonstrated that the administration EPE 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg BW significantly prevented bone loss in OVX rats which these effect equivalent to estradiol. These effects were described in increased length of femur and tibiae, bone density, and mineral content of calcium and phosphorous in bone ash. EPE also significantly prevented OVX-induced uterine atrophy and increased in body weight gain. The femur mechanical testing significantly increased the ultimate load and stiffness of femurs of ovariectomized-rats that its effect was greater than OVX or sham-operated rats. Increased bone density may lead to enhanced bone strength, reducing the risk of fracture, which is evident in the administration of EPE due to high content of mineral density and content and increase the ultimate load. This effect seems to be pro-estrogenic compound, which suppress bone resorption by directly acting on estrogen receptor in bone sites. This study suggest that phytoestrogen compound from Pachyrhizus erosus may offer a potential alternative therapy for the treatment of health problems such as osteoporosis in post-menopausal women.
Source : International Journal of Phytomedicine
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Tomato Juice can Reduce Osteoporosis
Tomato juice can significantly increase the presence of cell-protecting antioxidants that help to fight against osteoporosis, according to new research.
Writing in Osteoporosis International, calcium researchers at the University of Toronto (UT) claim that 30mg of lycopene found in tomatoes – the equivalent to two glasses of tomato juice – is enough to help prevent the brittle-bone disease.
The study was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the Research and Development Departments of Genuine Health, Heinz, Millenium Biologix, Kagome (Japan), and LycoRed.
Osteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass, which leads to an increase risk of fractures, especially the hips, spine and wrists. An estimated 75 million people suffer from it in Europe, the US and Japan.
Women are four times more likely to develop osteoporosis than men and previous research indicates that diabetes decreases bone turnover that is associated with impaired osteoblastic maturation and function.
According to the International Osteoporosis Foundation, the total direct cost of osteoporotic fractures in Europe is €31.7bn so boosting bone density in high-risk and post-menopausal women could ease the burden of osteoporosis.
Lycopene is the red pigment in tomatoes and several fruits. According to the UT scientists, it is a potent carotenoid – a group of naturally occurring pigments essential for plant growth – with a high ability to quench singlet oxygen.
Due to this ability to decrease oxidative stress, lycopene has been associated with a decreased risk of chronic diseases.
The researchers claims that to date, no intervention studies have been published demonstrating the effect of the antioxidant lycopene on bone, and that the aim of the study thus was to determine whether lycopene would act as an antioxidant to decrease oxidative stress parameters that result in decreased bone turnover markers.
Methodology and results
Post-menopausal women aged 50 to 60 were restricted from consuming anything containing lycopene for a month.
The participants were split into four groups over four months. Each group of participants either consumed a 15mg lycopene supplement, a glass of tomato juice naturally containing 15mg of lycopene, a gourmet Japanese tomato juice with 35mg of lycopene or a placebo.
Serum collected after the washout, 2 and 4 months of supplementation, was assayed for cross-linked aminoterminal N-telopeptide, carotenoid content, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), lipid, and protein oxidation, added the authors.
By the end of the initial lycopene-free month, in every participant, "There was an increased reobsorption of bone. In other words, within a month, the participants were more prone to the risk of osteoporosis," says Leticia Rao, director of the Calcium Research Laboratory who conducted the study.
After four months, results showed that lycopene-supplementation had significantly increased serum lycopene compared to the placebo group.
The lycopene groups had significantly increased antioxidant capacity, decreased oxidative stress parameters and decreased bone reobsorption markers.
The results of the study, concluded the researchers, showed a significant increase in serum lycopene after supplementation with juice or lycopene based capsules, which resulted in a decrease in the bone resorption marker NTx in postmenopausal women:
“This reduction in NTx may be due to the ability of the absorbed lycopene to reduce the oxidative stress parameters in these women. Our findings are the first to show that lycopene intervention, given in capsule or juice form, supplying at least 30 mg/day, may decrease the risk of osteoporosis by decreasing oxidative stress and bone resorption.”
Source : Nutraingredients USA
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Cola drinks raise osteoporosis risk
Women who drink four or more cola beverages per week have a higher risk of developing the bone disease osteoporosis, finds a new study, landing another blow on fizzy drinks makers.
Regular cola consumption was linked to lower bone mineral density in all women studied, regardless of other factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium intake, researchers found.
Low bone mineral density increases the risk of osteoporosis, also known as brittle bone disease.
The news is another hammer blow to soft drinks makers, already struggling against falling fizzy drinks sales as consumers shift to healthier, non-carbonated beverages.
The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, used dietary questionnaires from more than 2,500 people who were part of an osteoporosis study in the US. Their average age was around 60 years.
The results were similar for regular, diet and decaffeinated colas. "The more cola women drank, the lower their bone mineral density was," said Katherine Tucker, the lead researcher and from Tufts University.
Men appeared to be unaffected, despite drinking slightly more cola per week on average.
Suspicions on what may cause cola to damage bone density initially rested on an ingredient called phosphoric acid. Tucker called for more controlled studies on this.
"Physiologically, a diet low in calcium and high in phosphorus may promote bone loss, tipping the balance of bone remodelling toward calcium loss from the bone. Although, some studies have countered that the amount of phosphoric acid in cola is negligible compared to other dietary sources such as chicken or cheese."
Another reason researchers suspected phosphoric acid was because it is not generally present in non-cola beverages. Other fizzy drinks that were not cola-based did not appear to affect bone density, the study found.
Cola drinks Coca-Cola and Pepsi remain two of the biggest-selling soft drink brands in the world. Cola made up more than 70 per cent of fizzy drinks consumed by those taking part in the recent osteoporosis study.
Consumption of carbonated soft drinks, although now stagnating in mature markets, rose by 300 per cent in the US alone between 1960 and 1990.
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