Research - Olive / Olea europaea L.
Phytoestrogen (+)-pinoresinol exerts antitumor activity in breast cancer cells with different oestrogen receptor statuses
- Alicia López-Biedma,
- Cristina Sánchez-Quesada,
- Gabriel Beltrán,
- Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez and
- José J. Gaforio
Background Consumption of virgin olive oil (VOO) has been associated with a low breast cancer incidence. Pinoresinol is a phytoestrogen that is typically found in VOO. Considering the role of oestrogen in breast cancer development and progression, we investigated the potential antitumor activity of pinoresinol in breast cancer cells.
Methods To address this question, we treated MDA-MB-231 (oestrogen receptor [ER] negative) and MCF7 (ER+) human breast tumour cells and MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells (ER-) with different concentrations of pinoresinol. The cytotoxic activity, cell proliferation, cell cycle profile, apoptosis induction, reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage were assessed.
Results Pinoresinol showed cytotoxic, anti-proliferative and pro-oxidant activity in human breast tumour cells, independent of their oestrogen receptor status. In addition, pinoresinol exerted antioxidant activity and prevented DNA damage associated with oxidative stress in human mammary epithelial cells.
Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that pinoresinol may have antitumor activity in human breast cancer cells independently of oestrogen receptor status. Furthermore, the results show that the pinoresinol has the typical characteristics of a chemopreventive compound.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells
Carla Marchetti,1 Marco Clericuzio,2 Barbara Borghesi,3 Laura Cornara,3 Stefania Ribulla,2 Fabio Gosetti,2 Emilio Marengo,2 and Bruno Burlando1,2
Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics.
Source : Journal Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Re: High Levels of Olive Oil Consumption Associated with Decreased Risk of Coronary Artery Disease
Dimitriou M, Rallidis LS, Theodoraki EV, Kalafati IP, Kolovou G, Dedoussis GV. Exclusive olive oil consumption has a protective effect on coronary artery disease; overview of the THISEAS study. Public Health Nutr. July 2015:1-7. [epub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015002244.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common condition associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is the result of narrowing of the coronary arteries. CAD can lead to angina, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. The Seven Countries Study was one of the first to establish that dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, and environmental factors, including diet, activity level, stress, and smoking, affect the risk of developing CVD. Other studies have shown that the Mediterranean diet can provide a cardiovascular protective effect. The Mediterranean diet is characterized by high intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, chicken, fish, and olive (Olea europaea, Oleaceae) oil. Each of these components is likely to contribute to the reduction in CVD risk in some way. Studies have shown that olive oil can improve lipid profile, reduce oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and improve endothelial function. The Hellenic study of Interactions between Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and Eating and Atherosclerosis Susceptibility (THISEAS) is a case-controlled study that was conducted in Greece between 2006 and 2010. This report describes the relationship between the risk of developing CAD and socioeconomic status, anthropometrics, lifestyle choices, and biochemical markers.
Patients with CAD were recruited from hospitals, Centers of Open Protection for the Elderly, and municipalities in and around Athens, Greece. Outpatients or in-patients who did not have CAD and were not patients in a cardiology clinic were also recruited as controls. In addition, healthy subjects were recruited from the Centers of Open Protection for the Elderly and municipalities in and around Athens, Greece. An attempt was made to recruit twice as many control patients as case patients. The case patients had acute coronary syndrome or CAD with > 50% stenosis in at least 1 of the main coronary blood vessels. Patients were excluded if they had acute renal or hepatic disease.
Blood was collected after a 12-hour fast and measured for glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Education level, marital status, socioeconomic status, physical activity level, smoking status, body weight and height, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were measured. Diet was evaluated using a 172-picture food frequency questionnaire that asked what food was consumed, how often, and in what proportions. Because it is common for diet to be modified after CAD diagnosis, information on diet was collected only from case patients who had been recently diagnosed with CAD. This resulted in dietary analysis of 60.4% of the case patients. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and olive oil consumption were measured using the MedDietScore and additional questionnaires on fat consumption, respectively. Patients were also asked to note any prescription medications taken.
Of the 2565 patients enrolled in the study, 1221 were case patients, and 1344 were control patients. Of the 1221 case patients, 499 underwent dietary analysis, while 832 of the control patients underwent dietary analysis. The case patients were significantly older, were more likely to smoke or have smoked in the past, and had a lower level of education and income than the control patients (P<0.001 for all). In addition, the case patients had significantly higher cholesterol levels and blood pressure, were more likely to have diabetes, and more likely to be taking lipid-lowering medication (P<0.001 for all). The control patients had higher total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C than the case patients (P<0.001 for all). This is likely because many of the case patients were taking medications to control dyslipidemia. The case patients also had higher fasting blood glucose levels than the control patients (P<0.001). The control patients had significantly lower daily caloric intake but a significantly higher fat and olive oil intake than case patients (P<0.001). Lastly, olive oil consumption was associated with a decrease in risk of developing CAD. This decrease was as much as 48% in those that consumed olive oil exclusively.
A reduced risk of developing CAD was associated with higher levels of education, higher socioeconomic status, higher activity levels, not smoking cigarettes, lower BMI, and higher intake of olive oil. Most of these correlations have been confirmed with other studies, including the Minnesota Heart Survey and the ATTICA study. A decreased risk of developing CAD with increased olive oil consumption has been found in several other studies. In two studies, subjects in the highest olive oil consumption group had a reduced risk of developing CAD. In the Three-City Study, there was a reduced risk of stroke in the group with the highest olive oil consumption. However, according to the authors, this is the first study to control for confounding dietary influence on CAD rates and investigate the effect of exclusive olive oil consumption. Olive oil effects are thought to be mediated through changes in oxidative stress, inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and lipid profile. Limitations of the study, acknowledged by the authors, include recall bias of past diet and the unknown probability that control patients would be diagnosed with CAD soon after the study ended. The authors conclude that higher or exclusive olive oil consumption could be an important addition to nutritional protocols to prevent CAD.
―Cheryl McCutchan, PhD
Source : American Botanical Council
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Effects of the Olive Tree Leaf Constituents on Myocardial Oxidative Damage and Atherosclerosis
Panagiotis Efentakis1, Efstathios K. Iliodromitis2, Emmanuel Mikros1, Anastasia Papachristodoulou1, Nikolaos Dagres2, Alexios-Leandros Skaltsounis3, Ioanna Andreadou1
The olive (Olea europaea) leaf is considered an important traditional herbal medicine utilized against infectious diseases, and for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension. Moreover, olive leaf constituents have been related to cardioprotection, probably due to their association with cellular redox modulating effects. The pathogenesis of certain common diseases, including those of the cardiovascular system, involves oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. Olive polyphenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, or tyrosol, possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiatherosclerotic, anti-ischemic, and hypolipidemic effects on the myocardium as demonstrated by various in vitro and in vivo studies. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on the role of the olive leaf constituents in the prevention of cardiac dysfunction and highlight future perspectives in their use as cardioprotective agents in therapeutics.
In conclusion, oleuropein seems to be a promising molecule that may be used as a cardioprotective agent. However, the underlying signaling cascades of its cardioprotective effects remain to be elucidated.
Conclusively, O. europaea L. leaf constituents possess proven beneficial results on myocardial oxidative stress and atherosclerosis.
Source : Planta Medica
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Olive Oil Polyphenols Decrease LDL Concentrations and LDL Atherogenicity in Men in a Randomized Controlled Trial1,2,3
Álvaro Hernáez4,8,9, Alan T Remaley11, Marta Farràs4,8,12,Sara Fernández-Castillejo13, Isaac Subirana5,7, Helmut Schröder4,7,Mireia Fernández-Mampel4, Daniel Muñoz-Aguayo4,8, Maureen Sampson11,Rosa Solà8, Magí Farré6,14, Rafael de la Torre6,15,María-Carmen López-Sabater10, Kristiina Nyyssönen16,Hans-Joachim F Zunft17, María-Isabel Covas4,8, and Montserrat Fitó4,8,*
Background: Olive oil polyphenols have shown protective effects on cardiovascular risk factors. Their consumption decreased oxidative stress biomarkers and improved some features of the lipid profile. However, their effects on LDL concentrations in plasma and LDL atherogenicity have not yet been elucidated.
Objective: Our objective was to assess whether the consumption of olive oil polyphenols could decrease LDL concentrations [measured as apolipoprotein B-100 (apo B-100) concentrations and the total number of LDL particles] and atherogenicity (the number of small LDL particles and LDL oxidizability) in humans.
Methods: The study was a randomized, cross-over controlled trial in 25 healthy European men, aged 20–59 y, in the context of the EUROLIVE (Effect of Olive Oil Consumption on Oxidative Damage in European Populations) study. Volunteers ingested 25 mL/d raw low-polyphenol-content olive oil (LPCOO; 366 mg/kg) or high-polyphenol-content olive oil (HPCOO; 2.7 mg/kg) for 3 wk. Interventions were preceded by 2-wk washout periods. Effects of olive oil polyphenols on plasma LDL concentrations and atherogenicity were determined in the sample of 25 men. Effects on lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene expression were assessed in another sample of 18 men from the EUROLIVE study.
Results: Plasma apo B-100 concentrations and the number of total and small LDL particles decreased (mean ± SD: by 5.94% ± 16.6%, 11.9% ± 12.0%, and 15.3% ± 35.1%, respectively) from baseline after the HPCOO intervention. These changes differed significantly from those after the LPCOO intervention, which showed significant increases of 6.39% ± 16.6%, 4.73% ± 22.0%, and 13.6% ± 36.4% from baseline (P < 0.03). LDL oxidation lag time increased by 5.0% ± 10.3% from baseline after the HPCOO intervention, which was significant only relative to preintervention values (P = 0.038). LPL gene expression tended to increase by 26% from baseline after the HPCOO intervention (P = 0.08) and did not change after the LPCOO intervention.
Conclusion: The consumption of olive oil polyphenols decreased plasma LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity in healthy young men.
Source : Journal Nutrition
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Olive Oil Consumption Reduces the Risk for Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality in an Elderly Mediterranean Population at High Risk for Cardiovascular Disease
Guasch-Ferré M, Hu FB, Martínez-González MA, et al. Olive oil intake and risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the PREDIMED study. BMC Med. 2014;12:78. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-12-78.
Olive (Olea europaea) oil is one of the major components of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet). The PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study has shown that a MedDiet enriched with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) improved lipid profiles, decreased blood pressure, and reduced the risk of major cardiovascular events.1,2The aim of this observational, prospective cohort study was to evaluate the effect of olive oil (especially EVOO) consumption on the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high risk for CVD.
This study was part of PREDIMED, a larger, multicenter, parallel-group, randomized trial evaluating the effects of the MedDiet on CVD risk. Individuals were recruited from various hospitals or institutions throughout Spain. A total of 7,447 subjects (men: 55-80 years and women: 60-80 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 interventions – a MedDiet supplemented with EVOO, a MedDiet supplemented with mixed nuts, or a control diet (subjects given advice on a low-fat diet). The inclusion criteria were absence of CVD at enrollment and the presence of high risk factors for CVD (subjects had type 2 diabetes or at least 3 of the following risk factors: smoking habits, hypertension, high low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, overweight, and family history of premature CVD). Additionally, subjects were excluded if they had a body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2 or any condition that would interfere with the study.
The outcomes of this study were composite of cardiovascular events, cardiovascular mortality, cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. Dieticians completed food frequency questionnaires based on subject interviews at baseline and yearly during the follow-up period. In particular, questions evaluated the amount and frequency of EVOO (mechanically pressed olives, acidity <1%) and common olive oil (refined olive oil and pomace olive oil, acidity <0.3%) consumption. Compliance to the MedDiet was evaluated using a 14-item MedDiet screener. Energy and nutrient intakes were measured based on Spanish food composition tables. The subject's lifestyle variables, medical history, physical activity, body measurements, and blood pressure measurements were also evaluated. Information on CVD mortality was obtained from yearly questionnaires/physical examinations, primary care physicians, yearly medical records, and the National Death Index. Cause of death and confirmation of cardiovascular events were confirmed by the End-point Adjudication Committee. Follow-up time was the interval between the date of randomization and the last date the subjects participated in the study. Results were also based on the following different multivariate model adjustments: model 1 (adjusted for age, sex, and the intervention group), model 2 (additionally adjusted for lifestyle variables and other potential confounders), and model 3 (additionally adjusted for baseline MedDiet adherence).
A total of 7,216 participants were included in the final analysis, after excluding the subjects with extremes of energy intake (n=153) and those with incomplete dietary information at baseline (n=78). The follow-up period with a median of 4.8 years included 277 major cardiovascular events, 81 cardiovascular deaths, 130 cancer deaths, and a total of 323 deaths. The mean age of subjects was 67 years (57.4% were women). Changes in total olive oil intake at the end of the follow-up period were 10.92 ± 22.91 g/d for those consuming the MedDiet with EVOO, 2.36 ± 21.81 g/d for those given the MedDiet with nuts, and -3.03 ± 22.02 g/d in the control group.
There was a 35% lower risk for major cardiovascular events among the subjects that consumed the largest amounts (highest tertile) of total olive oil intake in comparison with the lowest intake (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.65; 95%confidence interval [CI]: 0.47 to 0.89; P for trend = 0.01) and after cumulative adjustments for various factors (model 3). For every 10 g/day of total olive oil intake, there was a 16% (HR: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73 to 0.96) decreased risk for cardiovascular mortality. Similarly, after adjusting for potential confounders, subjects in the highest tertile of baseline EVOO intake had a 39% lower risk for cardiovascular events compared to those consuming the lowest amounts (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85; P for trend < 0.01). In contrast, a non-significant inverse association was found between baseline EVOO consumption and mortality, especially all-cause mortality. Non-significant associations were found between the baseline intake of common olive oil and major cardiovascular events, as well as all causes evaluated for mortality. Overall, there were no significant associations found for cancer mortality and all-cause mortality of any group consuming high amounts of olive oil (EVOO, common, or both).
Evaluation of the different intervention groups and total olive oil intake indicated that the reductions in risk of major cardiovascular events were 57% (HR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.75; P for trend < 0.01) and 55% (HR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.82; P for trend < 0.01) for the MedDiet supplemented with either EVOO or nuts, respectively. In the low-fat diet control group, the risk was increased by 9% (HR: 1.09; 95% CI: 0.63 to 1.88; P for trend = 0.24).
The authors conclude, "Olive oil consumption, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals at high cardiovascular risk." This study focused on an elderly Mediterranean population, which may not necessarily be extrapolated to non-Mediterranean populations consuming the MedDiet. Nevertheless, this study is one of several studies that has demonstrated the beneficial effects of the MedDiet, or its major components, for cardiovascular health.1-4
--Laura M. Bystrom, PhD
Source : American Botanical Council
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Potential of olive oil phenols as chemopreventive and therapeutic agents against cancer: A review of in vitro studies
Ivan Casaburi, Francesco Puoci, Adele Chimento, Rosa Sirianni, Carmen Ruggiero, Paola Avena and Vincenzo Pezzi
Olive oil is a common component of Mediterranean dietary habits. Epidemiological studies have shown how the incidence of various diseases, including certain cancers, is relatively low in the Mediterranean basin compared to that of other European or North America countries. Current knowledge indicates that the phenolic fraction of olive oil has antitumor effects. In addition to the ability to be chemopreventive, with its high antioxidant activity, the antitumor effects of olive oil phenols (OO-phenols) has been studied because of their capacity to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in several tumor cell lines, by diverse mechanisms. This review will summarize and discuss the most recent relevant results on the antitumor effect of OO-phenols on leukemia tumor cells, colorectal carcinoma cells, and breast cancer (BC) cells. In particular, very recent data will be reported and discussed showing the molecular signaling pathways activated by OO-phenols in different histopathological BC cell types, suggesting the potential use of OO-phenols as adjuvant treatment against several subsets of BC. Data summarized here represent a good starting point for more extensive studies for better insight into the molecular mechanisms induced by OO-phenols and to increase the availability of chemopreventive or therapeutic drugs to fight cancer.
Source : Journal Molecular Nutrition and Food Research
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Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaf Polyphenols Improve Insulin Sensitivity in Middle-Aged Overweight Men: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial
Martin de Bock, José G. B. Derraik, Christine M. Brennan, Janene B. Biggs, Philip E. Morgan, Steven C. Hodgkinson, Paul L. Hofman, Wayne S. Cutfield
Olive plant leaves (Olea europaea L.) have been used for centuries in folk medicine to treat diabetes, but there are very limited data examining the effects of olive polyphenols on glucose homeostasis in humans.
To assess the effects of supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols (51.1 mg oleuropein, 9.7 mg hydroxytyrosol per day) on insulin action and cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged overweight men.
Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in New Zealand. 46 participants (aged 46.4±5.5 years and BMI 28.0±2.0 kg/m2) were randomized to receive capsules with olive leaf extract (OLE) or placebo for 12 weeks, crossing over to other treatment after a 6-week washout. Primary outcome was insulin sensitivity (Matsuda method). Secondary outcomes included glucose and insulin profiles, cytokines, lipid profile, body composition, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, and carotid intima-media thickness.
Treatment evaluations were based on the intention-to-treat principle. All participants took >96% of prescribed capsules. OLE supplementation was associated with a 15% improvement in insulin sensitivity (p = 0.024) compared to placebo. There was also a 28% improvement in pancreatic β-cell responsiveness (p = 0.013). OLE supplementation also led to increased fasting interleukin-6 (p = 0.014), IGFBP-1 (p = 0.024), and IGFBP-2 (p = 0.015) concentrations. There were however, no effects on interleukin-8, TNF-α, ultra-sensitive CRP, lipid profile, ambulatory blood pressure, body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, or liver function.
Supplementation with olive leaf polyphenols for 12 weeks significantly improved insulin sensitivity and pancreatic β-cell secretory capacity in overweight middle-aged men at risk of developing the metabolic syndrome.
Source : Plos One
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Lower Risk of Photoaging Associated with Monounsaturated Fatty Acids from Olive Oil
As life expectancy increases in developed countries, concern with the condition and appearance of aging skin also rises. Chronological (intrinsic) skin aging due to genetically determined loss of cell function over time appears as fine wrinkles and dry, thin, pale skin. Concurrent aging due to environmental or lifestyle factors (extrinsic) causes solar elastosis, actinic keratosis, pigmentation, and vascular abnormalities. Extrinsic aging, especially exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays (photoaging), can cause basal and squamous cell skin cancers. UV-B rays damage DNA directly. UV-A damage occurs through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and their effects.
Skin is a major fat storage organ for humans, but there are few studies of lipid intake and skin physiology. Reduced fat intake has been proposed as protective against photoaging. Monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are reported to reduce oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and related inflammation. The authors explored associations between facial skin photoaging and MUFA intake by dietary source.
A cohort from the Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants (SU.VI.MAX) study, a double-blind, placebo-controlled primary prevention trial evaluating antioxidant supplementation and incidence of ischemic heart failure in French adults, was used. The 13,017 SU.VI.MAX participants (7,876 women aged 35-60 years and 5,141 men aged 45-60 years at enrollment in 1994-1995) were followed for up to eight years. They completed 24-hour dietary records every two months, for six records/year/subject. The electronically administered record queried 900 items for three meals and up to four snacks daily. For each food or drink, participants selected a portion size. Types of oils and fats used were queried. Subjects who completed at least 10 records over 2.5 years were included in this study. Those who developed cancer or had a cardiovascular event during the same 2.5 years were excluded, as were women <45 years of age. Data from 1,264 women and 1,655 men from both placebo and intervention groups were used.
Separate analyses were undertaken for each gender. The SU.VI.MAX food composition table was used to determine total energy intake, total MUFA intake, and total intake of MUFAs from different dietary sources. Nutrient density was calculated by expressing MUFA intake as a percentage of total energy intake, then grouped into quartiles. Individual MUFA densities from major sources (vegetable oils, dairy products, meats, and processed meats) and the most frequently used oils containing MUFAs (olive [Olea europaea], sunflower [Helianthus annuus], and peanut [Arachis hypogaea] oils) were similarly grouped into quartiles. Results appear as estimated odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with the first quartile as the reference in each case.
Photoaging was assessed at baseline by researchers on a 6-grade damage scale including slack tissue, wrinkles, and abnormal pigmentation. Because the cohort was middle-aged, those scored as grade 1 (least damage) or 6 (most damage) were scarce and were grouped, respectively, with grades 2 and 5, creating four grades of damage.
Covariates included age, geographical residence (postal code), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) use status, degree of physical activity, education, and, for women, hormonal status. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from baseline height and weight. Residence was arbitrarily divided into North and South France. Subjects also rated the intensity of their lifetime sun exposure as none/mild, moderate, or severe.
Severe photoaging was strongly age-linked in both genders. Premenopausal women had less severe damage. In men, more severe skin aging was associated with less education, more sun exposure, and residence at higher (more northerly) latitudes. For men and women, those with the least MUFA intake had the worst skin aging. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between severity of photoaging and higher total MUFAs in men (OR=0.76, 95% CI: 0.57-1.00, P=0.03). For both genders, higher intake of MUFAs from vegetable oils was associated with less risk of severe photoaging (women: OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.44-0.90, P=0.01; men: OR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.40-0.76, P=0.0004). For olive oil only, a significant association for MUFA with less risk of skin aging was found (women: OR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.50-0.95, P=0.03; men: OR=0.58, 95% CI: 0.43-0.77, P=0.0002). Olive oil was the main vegetable oil for 59% of women and 51% of men in this study. No association was found with skin aging and MUFAs from dairy products, meats, or meat products.
These findings comport with those from studies examining aspects of the relationship between MUFA intake and skin aging. One reported a negative association between total MUFAs, olive oil intake, and skin aging. Another found a positive association between MUFA intake and skin elasticity. A third found no association between oleic acid intake and wrinkling, but reported greater risk of skin dryness with higher intake. The latter two studies did not consider specific MUFA sources. Olive oil's benefits against photoaging may be due to its having a higher ratio of MUFA and less omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). MUFAs are less susceptible to peroxidation. Also, squalene and polyphenols in olive oil may be involved. Squalene, largely sequestered in skin, is thought to be a major protectant against free radical damage and dryness. Squalene and polyphenols seem to be important in benefits of the Mediterranean diet. In this study, higher intake of olive oil was positively correlated with higher intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, and tea, and negatively associated with sweets, butter, and milk.
Source : American Botanical Council via Latreille J, Kesse-Guyot E, Malvy D, et al. Dietary monounsaturated fatty acids intake and risk of skin photoaging. PLoS One. September 6, 2012;7(9):e44490. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044490.
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Topical Olive Oil Alleviates Pain and Improves Physical Function in Osteoarthritis Patients
Bohlooli S, Jastan M, Nakhostin-Roohi B, Mohammadi S, Baghaei Z. A pilot double-blinded, randomized, clinical trial of topical virgin olive oil versus piroxicam gel in osteoarthritis of the knee. J Clin Rheumatol. March 2012;18(2):99-101.
Many people suffer from osteoarthritis (OA), with the knee being the joint most affected. Patients who do not respond well to conventional medical therapies, including topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and salicylates, often turn to complementary and alternative medicines. One of the traditional methods of managing knee pain in Iran, the home of these authors, is to apply topical olive (Olea europaea) oil. The compounds of olive oil thought to contribute to its observed health benefits include oleic acid, phenolics, and squalene,1 while the secoiridoid derivative, (-)-oleocanthal, has been shown to have NSAID properties.2 The authors conducted a pilot, prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blinded trial of topical virgin olive oil therapy versus the NSAID piroxicam gel in the treatment of knee OA.
The study was conducted in the rheumatology clinic of Imam Hospital, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, in Ardabil, Iran, from April 2008 to April 2010. The subjects included women aged between 40 and 85 years with a diagnosis of OA of 1 or both knees according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria and with a flare of pain following prior therapy withdrawal of an oral NSAID or acetaminophen (used at least 3 days weekly during the previous month).
At the screening visit, knee pain was scored on the 20-point scale of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) of pain. At that time, the subjects discontinued any current therapy for a 1-week washout period. At the baseline visit, pain was scored again. Eligible subjects had to have a pain flare and a pain subscale score of ≥9 on the WOMAC scale. A flare was defined as an increase in total score of at least 2 between the screening and baseline visits.
Included subjects were then randomized to apply piroxicam gel (n=36) or olive oil (n=35) for 4 weeks. They returned to the clinic on weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4 for assessment of efficacy, safety, and compliance. The piroxicam gel (Iran Najo Co.; Tehran, Iran) contained 0.5% piroxicam in a vehicle composed of carbomer 934, ethanol, propylene glycol, hydroxypropyl, α-methyl cellulose, sodium edetate, benzyl alcohol, diisopropanolamine, and purified water. The virgin olive oil was prepared directly from fruits of olive trees grown in Gilan Province in Iran. Both were packaged in identical 60 gram tubes. The subjects were instructed to apply 1 g of the medications 3 times daily on one primary affected knee to assess efficacy; the other knee, if treated, was only evaluated for safety.
The primary outcome measure was the change in scores on the WOMAC pain subscale from baseline to weeks 1, 2, 3, and 4. The secondary outcome measure was change in physical function from baseline to final assessment in the affected knee on the 68-point WOMAC physical function subscale.
Of the 71 subjects enrolled in the study, 58 completed it. Of the 6 piroxicam and 7 olive oil dropouts, 5 were due to protocol deviations and 7 due to lack of therapeutic effect. Up to 4 acetaminophen tablets (325 mg each) daily were allowed during weeks 1-3 for residual pain. No significant group differences were found for age, weight, height, or WOMAC subscales at baseline.
The authors report that topical olive oil was superior to piroxicam gel in the WOMAC pain subscale at weeks 2, 3, and 4. The mean change on the pain subscale for olive oil was a decrease of 7.48 between weeks 0 and 4 (P<0.001). In the piroxicam group, the mean score decreased by 2.73 (P<0.001). Although pain intensity was significantly decreased from baseline in both groups between weeks 0 and 4, a more significant decrease was reported in the olive oil group (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in daily acetaminophen use between the groups.
Regarding the secondary outcome measures, the olive oil showed significant superiority to piroxicam in the WOMAC physical function subscale at weeks 2, 3, and 4. A greater mean decrease in scores from baseline on the physical function subscale was noted for subjects treated with olive oil (-23.63) compared with those in the piroxicam group (-10.97) (P<0.001). One patient reported an adverse effect: skin allergy after virgin olive oil application.
Although the composition of olive oil is complex, the component oleocanthal may be responsible for some of the beneficial effects of the olive oil on knee pain. The presence of several types of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents in olive oil may also be attributed to its effects.
Among the study's limitations are the small sample size, the short duration, and the fact that it was not placebo-controlled. "Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of virgin olive oil on knee OA in larger populations," conclude the authors.
Overall, the findings of this study suggest that treatment for knee OA with topical virgin olive oil is associated with greater improvement in all outcome measures compared to treatment with piroxicam gel. The differences increased over time in favor of the olive oil.
Source : AmericaN Botanical Council
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Olive leaf extract may help hypertension: Frutarom study
Olive leaf extract is just as effective in lowering blood pressure as other common medical treatments for hypertension, according to a new clinical trial sponsored by Frutarom and Dexa Medica.
The study, published in Phytomedicine, found an olive leaf extract (EFLA 943 from Frutarom, Switzerland) to be as effective in treating high-blood pressure as a common medication blood pressure medication (Captopril/Dexacap from Dexa Medica).
The researchers also found that unlike the drug, olive leaf extract also significantly reduced plasma triglyceride levels.
“Olive leaf extract, at the dosage regimen of 500 mg twice daily, was similarly effective in lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressures in subjects with stage-1 hypertension as Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5–25 mg twice daily,” said the authors, led by Prof Endang Susalit, from the University of Indonesia.
The authors declared that their research was supported by PT Dexa Medica and Frutarom Switzerland Ltd.
The authors said that hypertension affects approximately 50 million individuals in the United States, and approximately 1 billion individuals worldwide.
They noted that it is possible to lower blood pressure with several classes of currently available anti-hypertensive drugs, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (such as Captopril), angitoensin-receptor blockers, and calcium channel blockers.
“Nevertheless, most patients with hypertension will require two or more anti-hypertensive medications to achieve their blood pressure goals … [which] also mean the increment of risks of adverse drug reaction and medication costs,” said the authors.
Susalit and colleagues noted that one alternative may be the use of herbal medicines. They explained that the leaves of the olive tree (Olea europaea L.) “have been used since ancient times to combat high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and diabetes and for other medicinal purposes.”
Olive leaf contains active substances including oleuropein, oleacein and oleanolic acid. They said that the olive lead extract EFLA 943 (from Frutarom) has been previously studied for its safety and anti-hypertensive effects.
At a dose of 1000 mg daily, the extract “was clearly superior to recommendations for life-style changes in reducing mean blood pressure levels from baseline,” said the authors.
“Based on the positive results observed in the pre-clinical and human studies, the current clinical trial was designed to primarily confirm the anti-hypertensive effect of the Olive leaf extract EFLA 943 in comparison with Captopril as one of the standard therapy for hypertension in patients with stage-1 hypertension,” said the authors.
The authors conducted a double-blind, randomized, parallel and active-controlled clinical study to evaluate the anti-hypertensive effect as well as the tolerability of olive leaf extract in comparison with Captopril in patients with stage-1 hypertension.
Olive leaf extract (EFLA 943) was given orally at the dose of 500 mg twice daily for eight weeks, whilst Captopril was given at the dosage regimen of 12.5 mg twice daily at start.
Evaluation of blood pressure was performed every week during the trial, whilst lipid profiles were recorded at four week intervals.
Susalit and his co-workers reported that after eight weeks of treatment, both treatment groups experienced significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline. They added that such reductions were not significantly different between groups.
However, they reported that a significant reduction of triglyceride level was observed for the group receiving olive leaf extract, but not in Captopril group.
The researchers said that the mechanism of action by which the olive leaf extract exerts its anti-hypertensive effects remains unknown “and is continuously being studied.”
They speculated that the anti-hypertensive activity “lies probably in its content of oleuropein acting synergistically with other active substances to exert both ACE inhibitory and calcium channel blocking activities.”
The authors concluded that “the anti-hypertensive activity of the extract was comparable to that of Captopril, given at its effective dose of 12.5–25 mg twice daily.”
“Additionally, the beneficial effects of the extract on lipid profile, particularly in reducing plasma LDL-, total-cholesterol and triglyceride levels were strongly indicated by this trial,” said the researchers.
Source: NutraIngredients via Phytomedicine
Volume 18, Issue 4 , Pages 251-258, doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.08.016
“Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: Comparison with Captopril"
Authors: E. Susalit, N. Agus, I. Effendi, R.R. Tjandrawinata, D. Nofiarny, et al
Link to NutraIngredients