Research - Nuts
see also Walnuts
Nut consumption and prostate cancer risk and mortality
Weike Wang1,6, Meng Yang2,6, Stacey A Kenfield3 , Frank B Hu1,2,4, Meir J Stampfer1,2,4, Walter C Willett1,2,4, Charles S Fuchs4,5, Edward L Giovannucci1,2,4,7 and Ying Bao*,4,7
Background: Little is known of the association between nut consumption, and prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and survivorship.
Methods: We conducted an incidence analysis and a case-only survival analysis in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study on the associations of nut consumption (updated every 4 years) with PCa diagnosis, and PCa-specific and overall mortality.
Results: In 26 years, 6810 incident PCa cases were identified from 47 299 men. There was no association between nut consumption and being diagnosed with PCa or PCa-specific mortality. However, patients who consumed nuts five or more times per week after diagnosis had a significant 34% lower rate of overall mortality than those who consumed nuts less than once per month (HR ¼ 0.66, 95% CI: 0.52–0.83, P-trend ¼ 0.0005).
Conclusions: There were no statistically significant associations between nut consumption, and PCa incidence or PCa-specific mortality. Frequent nut consumption after diagnosis was associated with significantly reduced overall mortality.
Source : British Journal of Cancer
Link to Full Article
Cognition: the new frontier for nuts and berries1,2,3
The inclusion of nuts in the diet is associated with a decreased risk of coronary artery disease, hypertension, gallstones, diabetes, cancer, metabolic syndrome, and visceral obesity. Frequent consumption of berries seems to be associated with improved cardiovascular and cancer outcomes, improved immune function, and decreased recurrence of urinary tract infections; the consumption of nuts and berries is associated with reduction in oxidative damage, inflammation, vascular reactivity, and platelet aggregation, and improvement in immune functions. However, only recently have the effects of nut and berry consumption on the brain, different neural systems, and cognition been studied. There is growing evidence that the synergy and interaction of all of the nutrients and other bioactive components in nuts and berries can have a beneficial effect on the brain and cognition. Regular nut consumption, berry consumption, or both could possibly be used as an adjunctive therapeutic strategy in the treatment and prevention of several neurodegenerative diseases and age-related brain dysfunction. A number of animal and a growing number of human studies show that moderate-duration dietary supplementation with nuts, berry fruit, or both is capable of altering cognitive performance in humans, perhaps forestalling or reversing the effects of neurodegeneration in aging.
Source : American Society of Nutrition
Link to Full Article
Daily consumption of nuts and peanuts linked to lower mortality rates
Nuts and peanuts, but not peanut butter, may protect against death from cancer, heart disease, respiratory disease and other major causes, new study finds
A paper published today in the International Journal of Epidemiology confirms a link between peanut and nut intake and lower mortality rates, but finds no protective effect for peanut butter. Men and women who eat at least 10 grams of nuts or peanuts per day have a lower risk of dying from several major causes of death than people who don't consume nuts or peanuts. The reduction in mortality was strongest for respiratory disease, neurodegenerative disease and diabetes, followed by cancer and cardiovascular diseases. The effects are equal in men and women. Peanuts show at least as strong reductions in mortality as tree nuts, but peanut butter is not associated with mortality, researchers from Maastricht University (the Netherlands) found.
This study was carried out within the Netherlands Cohort Study, a study running since 1986 among over 120,000 Dutch men and women 55-69 year old. Nut consumption was assessed by asking about portion size and frequency of intake of peanuts, other nuts (tree nuts) and peanut butter. The researchers from Maastricht University analyzed the relationship with overall and cause-specific mortality since 1986.
The associations between nuts and peanuts intake and cardiovascular death confirm earlier results from American and Asian studies that were often focused on cardiovascular diseases. However, in this new study, it was found that mortality due to cancer, diabetes, respiratory and neurodegenerative diseases was also lowered among users of peanuts and nuts. Project leader and epidemiologist Professor Piet van den Brandt commented: “It was remarkable that substantially lower mortality was already observed at consumption levels of 15 grams of nuts or peanuts on average per day (half a handful). A higher intake was not associated with further reduction in mortality risk. This was also supported by a meta-analysis of previously published studies together with the Netherlands Cohort Study, in which cancer and respiratory mortality showed this same dose-response pattern.”
Peanuts and tree nuts both contain various compounds such as monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, various vitamins, fiber, antioxidants, and other bioactive compounds, that possibly contribute to the lower death rates. In contrast to peanuts, no association was found between peanut butter intake and mortality risk. However, besides peanuts, peanut butter contains also added components like salt and vegetable oils. In the past, it has been shown that peanut butter contains trans fatty acids. The composition of peanut butter is therefore different from peanuts. The adverse health effects of salt and trans fatty acids could inhibit the protective effects of peanuts.
Source : Maastricht University
Link to Source
Nut consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis1,2,3,4
Background: Epidemiologic studies have shown inverse associations between nut consumption and diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and all-cause mortality, but results have not been consistent.
Objective: We assessed the relation between nut intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes, CVD, and all-cause mortality.
Design: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for all prospective cohort studies published up to March 2013 with RRs and 95% CIs for outcomes of interest. A random-effects model was used to pool risk estimates across studies.
Results: In 31 reports from 18 prospective studies, there were 12,655 type 2 diabetes, 8862 CVD, 6623 ischemic heart disease (IHD), 6487 stroke, and 48,818 mortality cases. The RR for each incremental serving per day of nut intake was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.94) for type 2 diabetes without adjustment for body mass index; with adjustment, the association was attenuated [RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.16; NS]. In the multivariable-adjusted model, pooled RRs (95% CIs) for each serving per day of nut consumption were 0.72 (0.64, 0.81) for IHD, 0.71 (0.59, 0.85) for CVD, and 0.83 (0.76, 0.91) for all-cause mortality. Pooled RRs (95% CIs) for the comparison of extreme quantiles of nut intake were 1.00 (0.84, 1.19; NS) for type 2 diabetes, 0.66 (0.55, 0.78) for IHD, 0.70 (0.60, 0.81) for CVD, 0.91 (0.81, 1.02; NS) for stroke, and 0.85 (0.79, 0.91) for all-cause mortality.
Conclusions: Our meta-analysis indicates that nut intake is inversely associated with IHD, overall CVD, and all-cause mortality but not significantly associated with diabetes and stroke. The inverse association between the consumption of nuts and diabetes was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index. These findings support recommendations to include nuts as part of a healthy dietary pattern for the prevention of chronic diseases
Source : The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Link to Full Article
Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome
C W C Kendall1,2,3, S G West4,5, L S Augustin1,2, A Esfahani6, E Vidgen1,2, B Bashyam1,2, K A Sauder4, J Campbell7, L Chiavaroli1,2, A L Jenkins1,7 and D J Jenkins1,2,8
- 1Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 2Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 3College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
- 4Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
- 5Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
- 6School of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
- 7Glycemic Index Laboratories, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 8Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
Background/Objective:Nut consumption has been found to decrease risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes and to promote healthy body weights possibly related to their favorable macronutrient profile. We therefore assessed the effect of pistachios on postprandial glucose and insulin levels, gut hormones related to satiety and endothelial function.
Subjects/Methods: In this randomized crossover study, 20 subjects with metabolic syndrome consumed five study meals over 5–10 weeks. The meals differed in fat type and quantity, but were matched according to available carbohydrates (CHOs). Three meals had 50 g available CHO: white bread (WB50g), white bread, butter and cheese (WB+B+Ch) and white bread and pistachios (WB+P). Two meals had 12 g available CHO: white bread (WB12g) and pistachios (P).
Results: Within each group of available CHO meals, postprandial glucose levels were the highest following the white bread-only meals, and glucose response was significantly attenuated when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed (P<0.05). Postprandial insulin levels were highest after the WB+B+Ch meal (P<0.05), but did not differ between the white bread-only and pistachio meals. Both endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index) significantly increased after the white bread-only meals compared with the WB+B+Ch meal (all P<0.05). Insulin secretagogue levels were higher when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed than when white bread only was consumed (P<0.05).
Conclusions: Compared with white bread, pistachio consumption reduced postprandial glycemia, increased glucagon-like-peptide levels and may have insulin-sparing properties. These effects could be beneficial for individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Source : EU Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Link to Abstract
.Association of Nut Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality
Ying Bao, M.D., Sc.D., Jiali Han, Ph.D., Frank B. Hu, M.D., Ph.D., Edward L. Giovannucci, M.D., Sc.D., Meir J. Stampfer, M.D., Dr.P.H., Walter C. Willett, M.D., Dr.P.H., and Charles S. Fuchs, M.D., M.P.H.
Increased nut consumption has been associated with a reduced risk of major chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the association between nut consumption and mortality remains unclear.
We examined the association between nut consumption and subsequent total and cause-specific mortality among 76,464 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1980–2010) and 42,498 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2010). Participants with a history of cancer, heart disease, or stroke were excluded. Nut consumption was assessed at baseline and updated every 2 to 4 years.
During 3,038,853 person-years of follow-up, 16,200 women and 11,229 men died. Nut consumption was inversely associated with total mortality among both women and men, after adjustment for other known or suspected risk factors. The pooled multivariate hazard ratios for death among participants who ate nuts, as compared with those who did not, were 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 0.96) for the consumption of nuts less than once per week, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93) for once per week, 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.90) for two to four times per week, 0.85 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.91) for five or six times per week, and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.73 to 0.86) for seven or more times per week (P<0.001 for trend). Significant inverse associations were also observed between nut consumption and deaths due to cancer, heart disease, and respiratory disease.
In two large, independent cohorts of nurses and other health professionals, the frequency of nut consumption was inversely associated with total and cause-specific mortality, independently of other predictors of death. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the International Tree Nut Council Nutrition Research and Education Foundation.)
Source : The New England Journal of Medicine
Link to Full Article
Appetitive, dietary and health effects of almonds consumed with meals or as snacks: a randomized, controlled trial
Open S Y Tan1 and R D Mattes2
- 1School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
- 2Department of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA
Background/Objectives: Snacks contribute toward a significant proportion of human total daily energy intake. This study investigated the effects of almonds, a satiating and nutrient-rich, common snack, on postprandial glycemia, appetite, short-term body weight and fasting blood parameters when consumed with meals or alone as a snack.
Methods: This was a 4-week randomized, parallel-arm study that entailed consuming almonds (43 g/day) with breakfast (BF) or lunch (LN), alone as a morning (MS) or afternoon (AS) snack or no almonds (CL). Participants (N=137) with increased risk for type 2 diabetes completed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and acute-feeding session at baseline, followed by almond consumption for 4 weeks before repeating the OGTT and acute-feeding trials. Anthropometric, biochemical and appetite responses were assessed.
Results: Almonds lowered serum glucose responses postprandially. Effects were most prominent in the snack groups. Almonds, consumed as snacks, also reduced hunger and desire to eat during the acute-feeding session. After 4 weeks, anthropometric measurements and fasting blood biochemistries did not differ from the control group or across intervention groups. Without specific guidance, daily energy intake was reduced to compensate for energy from the provided almonds. Dietary monounsaturated fat and α-tocopherol intakes were significantly increased in all almond groups.
Conclusion: Almonds provide post-ingestive metabolic and appetitive benefits and did not increase the risk for weight gain. This suggests that almonds may be a healthful snack option.
Source : EU Journal Clinical Nutrition
Link to Full Article
Effects of different forms of hazelnuts on blood lipids and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals
Background/Objectives: Diets high in nuts reduce cholesterol, probably due to their favorable lipid profile and other bioactive substances. However, the physical form of the nut may be important as the cell wall of intact nuts may limit the hypocholesterolemic effect of nuts by reducing lipid bioavailability. Therefore, we investigated the effects on blood lipids of incorporating three different forms of hazelnuts (ground, sliced and whole) into the usual diet.
Subjects/Methods: In a randomized crossover study with three phases, 48 mildly hypercholesterolemic participants were asked to consume 30 g of ground, sliced or whole hazelnuts for 4 weeks. Body weight, plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), apolipoprotein (apo) A1, apo B100 and α-tocopherol were measured at baseline and at the end of each dietary phase.
Results: There were no significant differences in any outcome variable between the different forms of nuts (all P0.159). However, compared with baseline, mean values at the end of each hazelnut intervention were significantly higher for HDL-C (P=0.023) and α-tocopherol (P=0.005), and significantly lower for TC (P<0.001), LDL-C (P<0.001), TC:HDL-C ratio (P<0.001), apo B100 (P=0.002) and apo B100:apo A1 ratio (P<0.001), with no significant difference in body weight (P=0.813).
Conclusion s: The ingestion of three different forms of hazelnuts equally improved the lipoprotein profile and α-tocopherol concentrations in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. Hazelnuts can therefore be incorporated into the usual diet as a means of reducing cardiovascular disease risk.
Source : European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Link to Full Study