Research - Nervous System / Neuroprotection
A Role of Ginseng and Its Constituents in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders
Natasya Trivena Rokot,1 Timothy Sean Kairupan,1,2 Kai-Chun Cheng,1 Joshua Runtuwene,1,2 Nova Hellen Kapantow,2 Marie Amitani,1 Akinori Morinaga,1 Haruka Amitani,1 Akihiro Asakawa,1 and Akio Inui1
Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the Panax genus of the Araliaceae family, has been used in China, Korea, and Japan as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. Ginseng is recorded to have exhibited a wide variety of beneficial pharmacological effects and has become a popular and worldwide known health supplement and drug. The protective effects of ginseng on central nervous system are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are concisely introduced. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of ginseng on central nervous system, mainly focused on the neuroprotection properties of ginseng, memory, and learning enhanced properties, and the effects on neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Thus, ginseng and its constituents are of potential merits in the treatment of cerebral disorders.
Source : Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Evaluation of the Neuroprotective Effects of Curcuminoids on B35 and SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells
Figueroa AP1*, Mufti S1 and Bautista A2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, MCPHS University, 179 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA
2Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Biochemical and Biotechnological Sciences, Catholic of Santa Maria University, P.O. Box 1350, Arequipa, Peru
Curcumin is the main curcuminoid found in the yellow spice turmeric, a prominent member of the ginger family. Studies have revealed that curcumin exhibits numerous beneficial effects such as the ability to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study examines the neuroprotective effects of curcumin in vitro by subjecting B35 and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells to hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) followed or preceded by treating them with curcumin. Using curcumin concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 µM before and after damaging the cells with H2 O2 has resulted in an increase in cell viability of B35 neuroblastoma cells. In contrast, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells showed an increase in their viability only upon the post-treatment with curcumin. The inhibitory effect of curcumin on caspase-3 and caspase-9, two of the most important mediators in the process of apoptosis, was also examined. We found that curcumin inhibited caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner, but not caspase-9. Using 5, 10, and 20 µM of curcumin resulted in 2.6%, 7.9% and 12.2% caspase-3 inhibition, respectively. These findings suggest that curcumin acts as a neuroprotectant and an anti-apoptotic agent through the inhibition of caspase-3, thereby introducing a potential agent for the treatment or prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
Source : Journal Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
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