Research - Metabolic Syndrome
Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana alleviate exaggerated vasoconstriction in metabolic syndrome through direct vasodilatation and nitric oxide generation
- Hossam M. Abdallah,
- Hany M. El-Bassossy,
- Gamal A. MohamedEmail author,
- Ali M. El-halawany,
- Khalid Z. Alshali and
- Zainy M. Banjar
Background Exaggerated vasoconstriction plays a very important role in the hypertension, a major component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In the current work, the potential protective effect of methanol extract of fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana L. on the exaggerated vasoconstriction in MetS has been investigated. In addition, the bioactive fraction and compounds as well as the possible mechanism of action have been illustrated.
Methods The effect of methanol extract of G. mangostana (GMT) fruit hulls on the vascular reactivity of aorta isolated from animals with MetS was investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. GMT was partitioned with chloroform (I) and the remaining mother liquor was fractionated on a Diaion HP-20 with H2O, 50 and 100 % methanol to give fractions II, III, and IV, respectively. The effect of total extract (GMT), bioactive fraction and the bioactive compounds on the vasoconstriction were examined in aortae isolated from animals with MetS by incubation for 30 min before exposing aortae to cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE). The direct relaxant effect was also examined by adding cumulative concentrations of the bioactive fraction and its bioactive compounds to PE precontracted vessels. In addition, aortic nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated.
Results Bioassay-guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2,4,3′-trihydroxy benzophenone-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), maclurin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (rhodanthenone) (4), epicatechin (5), and 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentahydroxy benzophenone (6). Only compounds 2, 4, and 5 significantly alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of MetS aortae and in the same time showed significant vasodilation of PE pre-contracted aortae. To further illustrate the mechanism of action, the observed vasodilation was completely blocked by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and inhibited by guanylate cyclase inhibitor, methylene blue. However, vasodilation was not affected by the potassium channel blocker, tetraethylammonium or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. In addition, compounds 2, 4, and 5 stimulated NO generation from isolated aortae to levels comparable with acetylcholine. Furthermore, 4 and 5 inhibited reactive oxygen species generation in MetS aortae.
Conclusion The phenolic compounds 2, 4, and 5 ameliorated the exaggerated vasoconstriction in MetS aortae through vasodilatation-NO generation mechanism.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Frequent Consumption of Sugar- and Artificially Sweetened Beverages and Natural and Bottled Fruit Juices Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in a Mediterranean Population at High Cardiovascular Disease Risk
1–3 C´ıntia Ferreira-Peˆgo,4,5 Nancy Babio,4,5 Maira Bes-Rastrollo,5,7,18 Dolores Corella,5,8 Ramon Estruch,5,6,9 Emilio Ros,5,10 Montserrat Fito,´ 5,11 Llu´ıs Serra-Majem,5,6,12 Fernando Aros, ´ 5,6,13 Miguel Fiol,5,14 Jose Manuel Santos-Lozano, ´ 5,15 Carlos Mun˜ oz-Bravo,16 Xavier Pinto,´ 9,17 Miguel Ruiz-Canela,5,7,18 and Jordi Salas-Salvado´ 4–6* on behalf of the PREDIMED Investigators
Background: The relation between the consumption of sweetened beverages and metabolic syndrome (MetS) is controversial. Objective: This analysis evaluated the associations between intakes of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), artificially sweetened beverages, and natural and bottled fruit juices and the incidence of MetS in elderly individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and without MetS at baseline.
Methods: We prospectively examined 1868 participants free of MetS at baseline from the PREDIMED (PREvencion con ´ DIeta MEDiterranea) study. MetS was defined by using the updated harmonized criteria of the International Diabetes ´ Federation, the American Heart Association, and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Energy and nutrient intakes were evaluated at baseline and then yearly by using a validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariableadjusted HRs for MetS and its components were estimated from mean intakes during follow-up. We compared the 2 highest consumption categories (1–5 and >5 servings/wk) with the lowest category (<1 serving/wk).
Results: A total of 930 incident cases of MetS were documented during a median follow-up of 3.24 y. When we compared consumption of >5 servings/wk with consumption of <1 serving/wk, multivariable HRs (95% CIs) for MetS incidence were 1.43 (1.00, 2.15), 1.74 (1.26, 2.41), 1.30 (1.00, 1.69), and 1.14 (1.04, 1.65) for SSBs, artificially sweetened beverages, natural fruit juices, and bottled fruit juices, respectively.
Conclusions: The occasional consumption of SSBs and artificially sweetened beverages (1–5 servings/wk) was not associated with the incidence of MetS in middle-aged and elderly individuals at high risk of CVD. The consumption of >5 servings/wk of all of the types of beverages analyzed was associated with an increased risk of MetS and some of its components. However, for SSBs and bottled fruit juices these associations must be interpreted with caution because of the low frequency of consumption in this population.
Source ; The Journal of Nutrition
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Turmeric/Nigella Combination Improves Metabolic Syndrome Parameters
Amin F, Islam N, Anila N, Gilani AH.
Clinical efficacy of the co-administration of turmeric and black seeds (Kalongi) in metabolic syndrome – a double blind randomized controlled trial – TAK-MetS trial. Complement Ther Med. 2015;23(2):165-174.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by abdominal obesity and the co-occurrence of at least 3 of the following: high blood pressure (BP), elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG), high serum triglyceride (TG) levels, and low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Medicinal plants may be used along with exercise and dietary modification to treat and prevent MetS as they contain bioactive phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that turmeric (Curcuma longa, Zingiberaceae) rhizome and nigella (Nigella sativa, Ranunculaceae) seed have hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, and antioxidant effects. These authors followed up their 2014 study1 showing the synergistic effects of these herbs by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the effect of these herbs alone and in combination among patients with MetS.
Patients were recruited from "a small community, Hijrat Colony, an urban-slum located at Mai-Kolachi, Karachi, Pakistan." Male residents of the colony with a waist circumference (WC) ˃90 cm (35.4 inches), along with 3 or more features of MetS, and who were not on regular medications were recruited. The exclusion criteria were as follows: hypertension or coronary heart disease; taking herbal supplements; on medications for hyperlipidemia, obesity, or chronic disease; and debilitation. The sample size was calculated for a 5% level of significance and a power of 80%. Assuming a 20% non-participation rate, at least 62 patients in each group were required.
A total of 250 patients (mean age, 44 ± 13.3 years) were randomly assigned to receive 1 of the following treatments daily for 8 weeks:
- 1.5 g powdered nigella (3 capsules of 500 mg each) (n = 62)
- 2.4 g powdered turmeric (3 capsules of 800 mg each) (n = 63)
- 900 mg nigella and 1.5 g turmeric (3 capsules, each containing 300 mg of nigella and 500 mg of turmeric) (n = 62)
- 1.5 g powdered psyllium (Plantago ovata, Plantaginaceae) seed husk (3 capsules of 500 mg each) (n = 63)
At baseline and at the end of the study, the patients completed diet and physical activity questionnaires. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks; they were analyzed to determine plasma levels of FBG, C-reactive protein (CRP), cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, and TGs. BP, WC, hip circumference (HC), and body mass index (BMI) were assessed at baseline and every 2 weeks.
At baseline, there were no significant differences among the groups in clinical characteristics. There were 6-9 withdrawals in each group. One patient in the nigella group quit due to nausea and 1 patient in the combination group dropped out due to excessive weakness, while in the turmeric group, 3 patients withdrew due to nausea and 1 due to skin pruritus (itching).
Compared to baseline, BMI, body fat percentage, and BP improved in all groups, but there were no significant differences among the groups. The authors attributed these improvements to lifestyle modifications.
After 8 weeks, TGs (P=0.001), cholesterol (P=0.02), FBG (P=0.02), LDL-C (P<0.001), and HDL-C (P=0.02) were significantly improved in the nigella group compared with placebo; however, when compared with baseline values, only cholesterol (P<0.001) and TGs (P<0.001) were significantly improved.
Compared with placebo, turmeric alone was more effective in reducing total cholesterol (P=0.009), LDL-C (P<0.001), and CRP (P<0.001), but had no significant effect on blood glucose. However, the effect on lipids was not significant compared to baseline.
In the combination group, improvements were observed in all clinical parameters compared with baseline values. Compared with the placebo group, greater improvements were seen in CRP (P=0.007), body fat percentage (P=0.04), total cholesterol (P=0.02), FBG (P<0.001), TGs (P=0.03), LDL-C (P<0.001), and HDL-C (P=0.04). Compared with the nigella group, the combination group showed greater improvements in HC (P=0.001), body fat percentage (P=0.008), weight (P<0.001), TGs (P=0.02), and CRP (P<0.001).
Although the occurrence of mild adverse effects was the highest in the turmeric group, there was no significant difference among groups. One patient in the nigella group and 3 patients in the turmeric group reported nausea, but there were no reports of nausea in the combination group. The authors suggest that this may be due to the lower dose of turmeric in the combination or the presence of nigella in the combination.
In summary, nigella alone improved lipid profiles and FBG and turmeric alone reduced LDL-C and CRP levels compared to placebo. However, the combination of nigella and turmeric (at 60% lower doses) improved several MetS parameters; the combination reduced body fat percentage, FBG, CRP, and improved lipid profiles. The study is limited by the failure to characterize the botanicals. These results need to be confirmed in longer-duration studies of larger and more ethnically diverse populations using herbs that have been chemically profiled.
Source : American Botanical Council - HerbClip
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Dietary intake of calcium and magnesium and the metabolic syndrome in the National Health and Nutriion Examination (NHAMES) 2001-2010 data
Laura Moore-Schiltza1, Jeffrey M. Alberta1, Mendel E. Singera1, James Swaina2 and Nora L. Nocka1 c1
a1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
a2 Department of Nutrition, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Higher dietary intakes of Mg and Ca, individually, have been associated with a decreased risk for the metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Experimental studies suggest that a higher intra-cellular ratio of Ca:Mg, which may be induced by a diet high in Ca and low in Mg, may lead to hypertension and insulin resistance. However, no previous epidemiological studies have examined the effects of the combined intake of Mg and Ca on MetSyn. Thus, we evaluated the association between dietary intakes of Ca and Mg (using 24-h recalls), independently and in combination, and MetSyn in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study 2001–2010 data, which included 9148 adults (4549 men and 4599 women), with complete information on relevant nutrient, demographic, anthropometric and biomarker variables. We found an inverse association between the highest (>355 mg/d) v. the lowest (<197 mg/d) quartile of Mg and MetSyn (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·57, 0·86). Women who met the RDA for both Mg (310–320 mg/d) and Ca (1000–1200 mg/d) had the greatest reduced odds of MetSyn (OR 0·59; 95 % CI 0·45, 0·76). In men, meeting the RDA for Mg (400–420 mg/d) and Ca (1000–1200 mg/d), individually or in combination, was not associated with MetSyn; however, men with intakes in the highest quartile for Mg (≥386 mg/d) and Ca (≥1224 mg/d) had a lower odds of MetSyn (OR 0·74; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·93). Our results suggest that women who meet the RDA for Mg and Ca have a reduced odds of MetSyn but men may require Ca levels higher than the RDA to be protected against MetSyn.
Source : British Journal of Nutrition
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Blueberries Decrease Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Obese Men and Women with Metabolic Syndrome
1,2,3Arpita Basu,4,* Mei Du,6 Misti J. Leyva,5 Karah Sanchez,4 Nancy M. Betts,4 Mingyuan Wu,6 Christopher E. Aston,5and Timothy J. Lyons5,6
Among all fruits, berries have shown substantial cardio-protective benefits due to their high polyphenol content. However, investigation of their efficacy in improving features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors in obesity is limited. We examined the effects of blueberry supplementation on features of metabolic syndrome, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation in obese men and women. Forty-eight participants with metabolic syndrome [4 males and 44 females; BMI: 37.8 ± 2.3 kg/m2; age: 50.0 ± 3.0 y (mean ± SE)] consumed freeze-dried blueberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried blueberries, #126 350 g fresh blueberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 960 mL water) daily for 8 wk in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screening and at wk 4 and 8 of the study. The decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater in the blueberry-supplemented group (− 6 and − 4%, respectively) than in controls (− 1.5 and − 1.2%) (P lt 0.05), whereas the serum glucose concentration and lipid profiles were not affected. The decreases in plasma oxidized LDL and serum malondialdehyde and hydroxynonenal concentrations were greater in the blueberry group (− 28 and − 17%, respectively) than in the control group (− 9 and − 9%) (P lt 0.01). Our study shows blueberries may improve selected features of metabolic syndrome and related cardiovascular risk factors at dietary achievable doses.
Source : The Journal of Nutrition
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The effectiveness of yoga in modifying risk factors for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
- 1Department of Health Policy, Harvard University, MA, USA
- 2Center for Health Decision Science, Harvard School of Public Health, MA, USA
- 3Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, the Netherlands
- 4Department of Radiology, Erasmus MC, the Netherlands
- 5Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Harvard Medical School, MA, USA
- 6Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, MA, USA
- MG Myriam Hunink, Departments of Radiology and Epidemiology, Room Na 2818, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, the Netherlands.
AbstractBackground Yoga, a popular mind-body practice, may produce changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome risk factors.
Design This was a systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).
Methods Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were performed for systematic reviews and RCTs through December 2013. Studies were included if they were English, peer-reviewed, focused on asana-based yoga in adults, and reported relevant outcomes. Two reviewers independently selected articles and assessed quality using Cochrane’s Risk of Bias tool.
Results Out of 1404 records, 37 RCTs were included in the systematic review and 32 in the meta-analysis. Compared to non-exercise controls, yoga showed significant improvement for body mass index (−0.77 kg/m2 (95% confidence interval −1.09 to −0.44)), systolic blood pressure (−5.21 mmHg (−8.01 to −2.42)), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (−12.14 mg/dl (−21.80 to −2.48)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (3.20 mg/dl (1.86 to 4.54)). Significant changes were seen in body weight (−2.32 kg (−4.33 to −0.37)), diastolic blood pressure (−4.98 mmHg (−7.17 to −2.80)), total cholesterol (−18.48 mg/dl (−29.16 to −7.80)), triglycerides (−25.89 mg/dl (−36.19 to −15.60), and heart rate (−5.27 beats/min (−9.55 to −1.00)), but not fasting blood glucose (−5.91 mg/dl (−16.32 to 4.50)) nor glycosylated hemoglobin (−0.06% Hb (−0.24 to 0.11)). No significant difference was found between yoga and exercise. One study found an impact on smoking abstinence.
Conclusions There is promising evidence of yoga on improving cardio-metabolic health. Findings are limited by small trial sample sizes, heterogeneity, and moderate quality of RCTs.
Source : EU Journal of Preventative Cardiology
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Anti-inflammatory properties of culinary herbs and spices that ameliorate the effects of metabolic syndrome
Alois Jungbauer , Svjetlana Medjakovic
Department of Biotechnology and Christian Doppler Laboratory of Receptor Biotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna, Muthgasse 18, 1190 Vienna, Austria
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are increasing global health problems. In addition to the malnutrition of a sedentary lifestyle, high calorie intake leads to obesity with many negative health consequences. Macrophages infiltrate adipose tissue and induce chronic inflammation by secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines, including COX-2 and iNOS, among other mediators of inflammation. Free fatty acids mediate adipose tissue signalling through toll-like receptor 4 and the expression of these pro-inflammatory mediators via NF-κB or JNK. PPAR γ activators can inhibit the activation of NF-κB, down-regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here we provide an overview of how different culinary herbs and spices exert anti-inflammatory activities and the extent to which they activate PPAR α and PPAR γ, inhibit the activation of NF-κB, and enhance expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Spices can play essential roles as anti-inflammatory agents in our diet, acting as pan PPAR activators and improving insulin sensitivity, counteracting dyslipidaemia and weight gain. The effects of chronic inflammation caused by obesity are counteracted and, consequently, the progression of diseases associated with chronic inflammation slowed.
Source : Journal Maturitas
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Acute effects of pistachio consumption on glucose and insulin, satiety hormones and endothelial function in the metabolic syndrome
C W C Kendall1,2,3, S G West4,5, L S Augustin1,2, A Esfahani6, E Vidgen1,2, B Bashyam1,2, K A Sauder4, J Campbell7, L Chiavaroli1,2, A L Jenkins1,7 and D J Jenkins1,2,8
- 1Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 2Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 3College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
- 4Biobehavioral Health, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
- 5Nutritional Sciences, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA
- 6School of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
- 7Glycemic Index Laboratories, Toronto, ON, Canada
- 8Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
Background/Objective:Nut consumption has been found to decrease risk of coronary heart disease and diabetes and to promote healthy body weights possibly related to their favorable macronutrient profile. We therefore assessed the effect of pistachios on postprandial glucose and insulin levels, gut hormones related to satiety and endothelial function.
Subjects/Methods: In this randomized crossover study, 20 subjects with metabolic syndrome consumed five study meals over 5–10 weeks. The meals differed in fat type and quantity, but were matched according to available carbohydrates (CHOs). Three meals had 50 g available CHO: white bread (WB50g), white bread, butter and cheese (WB+B+Ch) and white bread and pistachios (WB+P). Two meals had 12 g available CHO: white bread (WB12g) and pistachios (P).
Results: Within each group of available CHO meals, postprandial glucose levels were the highest following the white bread-only meals, and glucose response was significantly attenuated when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed (P<0.05). Postprandial insulin levels were highest after the WB+B+Ch meal (P<0.05), but did not differ between the white bread-only and pistachio meals. Both endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index) significantly increased after the white bread-only meals compared with the WB+B+Ch meal (all P<0.05). Insulin secretagogue levels were higher when butter and cheese or pistachios were consumed than when white bread only was consumed (P<0.05).
Conclusions: Compared with white bread, pistachio consumption reduced postprandial glycemia, increased glucagon-like-peptide levels and may have insulin-sparing properties. These effects could be beneficial for individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Source : EU Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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Effects of Chinese herbal medicine Yiqi Huaju Formula on hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial
1. Yi Chen (Institute of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China )
2. De-yu Fu (Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China )
3. Yu Chen (Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China )
4. Yan-ming He (Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China )
5. Xiao-dong Fu (Institute of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China )
6. Yan-qiu Xu (Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China )
7. Yi Liu (Institute of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China )
8. Xiao-tao Feng (Institute of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China )
9. Teng Zhang (Yueyang Hospital of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 200437, China )
10. Wen-jian Wang (Institute of Integrative Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200040, China )
BACKGROUND: Patients with hypertension coupled with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are among the high risk population in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, it is essential to appropriately control blood pressure together with other cardiovascular risk factors.
OBJECTIVE: The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic effects on blood pressure, blood pressure variability and other cardiovascular risk factors by giving Yiqi Huaju Formula, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, in addition to routine treatment to hypertensive patients coupled with MetS.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A total of 43 patients with hypertension coupled with MetS were recruited into this study. The enrolled patients were randomly divided into the Chinese herbal formula group (anti-hypertensive drugs plus Yiqi Huaju Formula, CHF) and the control group (anti-hypertensive drugs plus placebo). The CHF group enrolled 22 patients while the control group received 21 cases. Treatments were given for 12 weeks in both groups.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parameters examined include 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fasting glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose (PPG), fasting plasma insulin, serum lipid, etc. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the CHF group had significant improvement (P<0.01) in anthropometric parameters, FPG, HOMA-IR, blood pressure amplitude, blood pressure variability and blood pressure load.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine treatment can achieve better results in controlling blood pressure as well as other cardiovascular risk factors. The mechanism of controlling of blood pressure may be associated with the improvement of insulin sensitivity due to the Yiqi Huaju intervention
Source : Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine
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