Research - Melissa officinalis l / Lemon Balm
Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action
Marcin Ozarowski,1,2 Przemyslaw L. Mikolajczak,2,3 Anna Piasecka,4 Piotr Kachlicki,4 Radoslaw Kujawski,2 Anna Bogacz,5,6 Joanna Bartkowiak-Wieczorek,5 Michal Szulc,3 Ewa Kaminska,3 Malgorzata Kujawska,7 Jadwiga Jodynis-Liebert,7 Agnieszka Gryszczynska,2 Bogna Opala,2 Zdzislaw Lowicki,2 Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz,2,8,9 and Boguslaw Czerny6,10
Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MOleaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MOproduced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration.
Source : Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Melissa officinalis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation in colon cancer cells through formation of reactive oxygen species.
Purpose: Efficient strategies for the prevention of colon cancer are extensively being explored, including dietary intervention and the development of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Safe extracts of edible plants contain structurally diverse molecules that can effectively interfere with multi-factorial diseases such as colon cancer. In this study, we describe the antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects of ethanolic lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves extract in human colon carcinoma cells. We further investigated the role of extra and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS).
Methods: Antitumor effects of lemon balm extract (LBE) were investigated in HT- 29 and T84 human colon carcinoma cells. Inhibition of proliferation was analyzed by DNA quantification. The causal cell cycle arrest was determined by flow cytometry of propidium iodide-stained cells and by immunoblotting of cell cycle regulator proteins. To investigate apoptosis, cleavage of caspases 3 and 7 was detected by immunoblotting and fluorescence microscopy. Phosphatidylserine externalization was measured by Annexin V assays. Mechanistic insights were gained by measurement of ROS using the indicator dyes CM-H2DCFDA and Cell ROX Green.
Results: After 3 and 4 days of treatment, LBE inhibited the proliferation of HT- 29 and T84 colon carcinoma cells with an inhibitory concentration ([IC.sub.50]) of 346 and 120 [micro]g/ml, respectively. Antiproliferative effects were associated with a G2/M cell cycle arrest and reduced protein expression of cyclin dependent kinases (CDK) 2, 4, 6, cyclin D3, and induced expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C (p18) and 1A (p21). LBE (600 [micro]g/ml) induced cleavage of caspases 3 and 7 and phosphatidylserine externalization. LBE-induced apoptosis was further associated with formation of ROS, whereas quenching of ROS by antioxidants completely rescued the colon carcinoma cells from LBE-induced apoptosis.
Conclusions: Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) extract inhibits the proliferation of colon carcinoma cells and induces apoptosis through formation of ROS. Taken together, LBE or subfractions thereof could be used for the prevention of colon cancer.
Source : Intl Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
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Hyperactivity, concentration difficulties and impulsiveness improve during seven weeks’ treatment with valerian root and lemon balm extracts in primary school children
Jürgen Gromballa,Frank Beschornerb, Christian Wantzenc, Ute Paulsend, Martin Burkartd
- a Dombühler Strasse 8, D-90449 Nürnberg, Germany
- b Spenglersruh 1b, D-36381 Schlüchtern, Germany
- c Gartenstraße 10, D-54470 Bernkastel-Kues, Germany
- d Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co. KG, Willmar-Schwabe-Str. 4, D-76227 Karlsruhe, Germany
Valerian root and lemon balm extracts have previously shown efficacy and excellent tolerability in children < 12 years suffering from restlessness and insomnia. We now examined whether treatment with a fixed combination of both may also improve concentration, hyperactivity and impulsiveness.
169 primary school children suffering from hyperactivity and concentration difficulties but not meeting ADHS criteria were treated in an observational study by 27 office based pediatricians with a recommended daily dose of 640 mg valerian root extract WS® 1014 and 320 mg lemon balm extract WS® 1303 (Sandrin®), and evaluated by pediatricians and parents using standardized questionnaires at baseline, weeks 2 and 7.
The fraction of children having strong/very strong symptoms of poor ability to focus decreased from 75% to 14%, hyperactivity from 61% to 13%, and impulsiveness from 59% to 22%. Parent rated social behavior, sleep and symptom burden showed highly significant improvements. Only in two children mild transient adverse drug reactions were observed.
In primary school children with restlessness, concentration difficulties and impulsiveness treatment with WS® 1014 and WS® 1303 (Sandrin®) provides a viable option in addition to counseling and education.
Source : Journal Phytomedicine
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