Research - Massage / Spinal Manipulation Therapy
The Use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review
Objectives: To evaluate the methodologic quality of the evidence for the use of spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) with and without other therapies in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Design: A systematic review of the literature.
Participants: Any participant of a primary research study that investigated the effect of SMT on COPD. Only studies with participants older than age 18 years with an existing diagnosis of COPD were included.
Interventions: Interventions included any form of high-velocity, low-amplitude spinal manipulation with or without other forms of manual therapy, exercise, and/or pharmacologic intervention.
Outcome measures: Six-minute walking test, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, residual volume, total lung capacity, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, St George's Respiratory Questionnaire, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.
Results: Six articles met all of the inclusion criteria and were included in the review: three randomized controlled trials (RCTs), one pre–post observational study, one case series, and one single case study. Sample sizes varied from 1 to 33 participants ranging in age from 55 to 85 years. Risk of bias was low for the three RCTs and high for the other studies. All three RCTs used SMT in conjunction with exercise from a pulmonary rehabilitation program. Five of the six studies reported improvements in lung function and exercise performance following SMT intervention.
Conclusions: This review provides a methodologic evaluation of the evidence for using SMT with and without other therapies in the management of COPD. While the quality of the evidence provided by three RCTs was high, they were all conducted on small sample sizes. These results highlight the need for further research into the use of SMT in conjunction with exercise on people with COPD.
Source : Journal Alternative and Complementary Medicine
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Gait analysis of patients with knee osteoarthritis before and after Chinese massage treatment
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Chinese massage therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by measuring lower-limb gait parameters. We recruited 20 women with knee OA, who then underwent Chinese massage therapy three times per week for 2 weeks. The patients underwent gait evaluation using a six-camera infrared motion analysis system. They completed Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaires before and after treatment. We calculated the forward speed, step width, step length, total support time percentage, initial double support time percentage, and single support time percentage. We also measured the angles at the knee, hip, and ankle during the stance phase of walking. The results showed statistically significant mean differences in knee pain relief, alleviation of stiffness, and physical function enhancement after therapy (P < 0.05). The patients gained significantly faster gait speed, greater step width, and increased total support time percentage after the Chinese massage therapy (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the range of motion or initial contact angles of the knee, hip, or ankle during the stance phase of walking. We concluded that Chinese massage is a beneficial complementary treatment and an alternative therapy choice for patients with knee OA for short-term pain relief. Chinese massage may improve walking ability for these patients
Source : Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine
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The effect of back massage on blood pressure in the patients with primary hypertension in 2012-2013: a randomized clinical trial.
Mohebbi Z1, Moghadasi M1, Homayouni K2, Nikou MH3.
BACKGROUND:Tension and stress are among the factors that lead to hypertension. In most individuals, behavioral strategies, such as relaxation and massage, are effective in controlling the individuals' response to stress, thus reducing hypertension.
METHODS:This non-blind clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients with primary hypertension. The patients were randomly divided into a control and an intervention group. In both groups, blood pressure was measured and recorded twice a week before and after a 10-min Swedish back massage and rest for 6 weeks. The study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, a check list of blood pressure record, and a fixed manometer.
RESULTS:In the intervention group, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased to 6.44 and 4.77 mmHg, respectively after back massage (P<0.001).
CONCLUSION:The obtained results were indicative of the effectiveness of back massage in reducing blood pressure in the study participants. Using stress control methods, such as massage, is a simple, acceptable, and teachable method for families to control blood pressure. After conducting more studies on this issue, back massage can be recommended as a non-pharmacological method to control blood pressure.
Source : Int J Community Based Nurs Midwifery.
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Modulatory effects of aromatherapy massage intervention on electroencephalogram, psychological assessments, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor
- Jin-Ji Wua,
- Yanji Cuia,
- Yoon-Sil Yanga,
- Moon-Seok Kanga,
- Sung-Cherl Junga,
- Hyeung Keun Parkb,
- Hye-Young Yeunc,
- Won Jung Jangd,
- Sunjoo Leee,
- Young Sook Kwakf,
- Su-Yong Euna
Aromatherapy massage is commonly used for the stress management of healthy individuals, and also has been often employed as a therapeutic use for pain control and alleviating psychological distress, such as anxiety and depression, in oncological palliative care patients. However, the exact biological basis of aromatherapy massage is poorly understood. Therefore, we evaluated here the effects of aromatherapy massage interventions on multiple neurobiological indices such as quantitative psychological assessments, electroencephalogram (EEG) power spectrum pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.
A control group without treatment (n = 12) and aromatherapy massage group (n = 13) were randomly recruited. They were all females whose children were diagnosed as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and followed up in the Department of Psychiatry, Jeju National University Hospital. Participants were treated with aromatherapy massage for 40 min twice per week for 4 weeks (8 interventions).
A 4-week-aromatherapy massage program significantly improved all psychological assessment scores in the Stat-Trait Anxiety Index, Beck Depression Inventory and Short Form of Psychosocial Well-being Index. Interestingly, plasma BDNF levels were significantly increased after a 4 week-aromatherapy massage program. Alpha-brain wave activities were significantly enhanced and delta wave activities were markedly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment, as shown in the meditation and neurofeedback training. In addition, salivary cortisol levels were significantly reduced following the one-time aromatherapy massage treatment.
These results suggest that aromatherapy massage could exert significant influences on multiple neurobiological indices such as EEG pattern, salivary cortisol and plasma BDNF levels as well as psychological assessments.
Source : Complementary Therapies in Medicine
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Effect of a Brief Seated Massage on Nursing Student Attitudes Toward Touch for Comfort Care
Paul C. Turkeltaub, MD, LMT, 1, *Edilma L. Yearwood, PhD, RN, FAAN, 1and Erika Friedmann, PhD
While massage has been removed from nursing curricula, studies have reported massage as safe
and effective for stress reduction, relaxation, pain relief, fatigue, and quality of life.
To compare the efficacy of two intensities of touch administered during two seated massages on the
attitudes of nursing students toward touch for their self-care and patient care.
Nursing students who volunteered gave institutional review board–approved written informed
consent to undergo massage by a licensed massage therapist.
A private room adjacent to the nursing lab in a school of nursing.
Brief seated massages of differing intensities. Each participant received low-intensity and high-
intensity touch in a two-block, randomized order, within-subjects design. Linear mixed models nested within
subject and random intercept analyses were used to test hypotheses in this two-treatment, two-sequence, two-
period crossover design.
Health questionnaires/visual analogue scales pertaining to physical/affective/and attitudinal status were completed before and after each massage.
Twenty-nine participants (93% female, 83% single) completed the study. Before massage, the optimal
intensity of touch anticipated for self-comfort was 6.6 (0=no pressure;10=most intense pressure imaginable).
The mean touch intensities were 6.7 for high-intensity massage and 0.5 for low-intensity (p<0.001). The
overall percentage differences (feeling better or worse) following massage were as follows: low intensity,
37.5% better; high intensity, 62.7% better (p<0.001). Significantly more improvement was reported for energy,
pain, stress, and feeling physically uptight after high-intensity compared with low-intensity (p<0.03). Parti-
cipants were more likely to both receive touch for self-care and provide touch for patient care after experiencing
high- versus low-intensity massage (p<0.01).
High-intensity seated massage was more efficacious than low-intensity massage and positively
influenced nursing student attitudes toward the inclusion of massage in self-care/patient care. The role of touch
for self-care/patient care in the nursing curricula merits reconsideration.
Source : The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine
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Acupuncture and Acupressure and Massage Health Outcomes for Patients with Anorexia Nervosa:Findings from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial and Patient Interviews
Caroline Smith, PhD, 1 Sarah Fogarty, PhD, 1 Stephen Touyz, PhD, 2 Sloane Madden, MBBS, 3 Geoff Buckett, MB, ChB,4 and Phillipa Hay, DPhil 5,6
AbstractObjectives:This study examined the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared with an active control
in an inpatient setting, to examine individuals’ experience of the interventions, clinical outcomes from the trial, and to integrate
data to explain the trial findings.
Design:This was a pilot randomized controlled trial with in-depth interviews with trial participants.Setting:The study was conducted at a private medical facility in Sydney, Australia.Subjects:Twenty-six (26) patients with anorexia nervosa who were medically stable were the subjects.Interventions:Treatment as usual was administered, and the intervention was delivered twice a week for thefirst 3 weeks, followed by weekly treatment for three weeks. The acupuncture group received acupuncture at thepoints Hegu (LI4), Zusanli (ST36), Neiguan (PC6), Taichong (LR3), Yanglingquan (GB34), and additional pointsbased on the Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis. The control group received acupressure and massage.Acupressure involved consciously and gradually directing pressure to the center of the point being worked on.Outcome measures:Clinical outcomes were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks following completion of the intervention. The primary
outcome measure was body–mass index (BMI), and secondary outcomes included eating disorder psychopathology,
anxiety, and depression. A semistructured interview was conducted asking questions about their interaction with the practitioner,
what happened, how they felt, whether it made them feel differently, and what they attributed any change to.Results:We found timely recruitment with the population recruited within a 5-month period. Study dropoutswere 23% and treatment compliance was moderate, but acceptable for this challenging population. Participantsin the control group demonstrated reduced eating concerns. Participants described both interventions positively,and experienced a sense of calmness and relaxation.Conclusions:Acupuncture and acupressure and massage may improve the patient’s subjective sense of well-being, and further research is needed
Source : Alternative and Complementary Medicine Journal
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Antenatal perineal massage helps reduce both perineal trauma during birth and pain afterwards.
Most women are keen to give birth without perineal tears, cuts and stitches, as these often cause pain and discomfort afterwards, and this can impact negatively on sexual functioning. Perineal massage during the last month of pregnancy has been suggested as a possible way of enabling the perineal tissue to expand more easily during birth. The review of four trials (2497 women) showed that perineal massage, undertaken by the woman or her partner (for as little as once or twice a week from 35 weeks), reduced the likelihood of perineal trauma (mainly episiotomies) and ongoing perineal pain. The impact was clear for women who had not given birth vaginally before, but was less clear for women who had. Women should be informed about the benefits of digital antenatal perineal massage.
Background: Perineal trauma following vaginal birth can be associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. Antenatal perineal massage has been proposed as one method of decreasing the incidence of perineal trauma.
Objectives: To assess the effect of antenatal digital perineal massage on the incidence of perineal trauma at birth and subsequent morbidity.
Search strategy: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (22 October 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 10), PubMed (1966 to October 2012), EMBASE (1980 to October 2012) and reference lists of relevant articles.
Selection criteria: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating any described method of antenatal digital perineal massage undertaken for at least the last four weeks of pregnancy.
Data collection and analysis: Both review authors independently applied the selection criteria, extracted data from the included studies and assessed study quality. We contacted study authors for additional information.
Main results: We included four trials (2497 women) comparing digital perineal massage with control. All were of good quality. Antenatal digital perineal massage was associated with an overall reduction in the incidence of trauma requiring suturing (four trials, 2480 women, risk ratio (RR) 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.86 to 0.96), number needed to treat to benefit (NNTB) 15 (10 to 36)) and women practicing perineal massage were less likely to have an episiotomy (four trials, 2480 women, RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.95), NNTB 21 (12 to 75)). These findings were significant for women without previous vaginal birth only. No differences were seen in the incidence of first- or second-degree perineal tears or third-/fourth-degree perineal trauma. Only women who have previously birthed vaginally reported a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of pain at three months postpartum (one trial, 376 women, RR 0.45 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.87) NNTB 13 (7 to 60)). No significant differences were observed in the incidence of instrumental deliveries, sexual satisfaction, or incontinence of urine, faeces or flatus for any women who practised perineal massage compared with those who did not massage.
Authors' conclusions: Antenatal digital perineal massage reduces the likelihood of perineal trauma (mainly episiotomies) and the reporting of ongoing perineal pain, and is generally well accepted by women. As such, women should be made aware of the likely benefit of perineal massage and provided with information on how to massage.
This record should be cited as: Beckmann MM, Stock OM. Antenatal perineal massage for reducing perineal trauma. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD005123. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD005123.pub3
Source : Cochrane Collaboration
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Thai traditional massage increases biochemical markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial
Background The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover.
Methods Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period.
Results Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P <0.01), while there was no change in serum osteocalcin or CTX. During the control period, there was no significant change in P1NP, osteocalcin or CTX compared to baseline. When age and height were taken into account, P1NP in postmenopausal women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 +/- 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P <0.001), while no change in P1NP was found in the rest of the women (n = 26).
Conclusions Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted.
Source : BMC
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Massage therapy for lyme disease symptoms: a prospective case study.
Thomason MJ, Moyer CA.
Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, USA.
INTRODUCTION: To study the effects of massage therapy (MT) on Lyme disease (LD) symptoms and affect.
METHODS: A 21-year-old female college student previously diagnosed with LD was recruited for a prospective case study that incorporated alternating periods of treatment and nontreatment across 65 days. Her self-reported symptoms of pain, fatigue, and impairment of concentration were assessed by means of a daily diary with corresponding visual analog scales. Immediate effects of MT on affect were assessed by completion of the Positive and Negative Affect Scales before and after each treatment session.
RESULTS: LD symptoms decreased during treatment periods and increased during nontreatment periods. Positive affect was increased at every MT session.
CONCLUSIONS: MT is a promising treatment for the symptoms pain, fatigue, and impaired concentration associated with LD. In addition, MT reliably increased positive affect. Massage therapists should consider using light-to-medium pressure MT for treatment of persons who present with a similar pattern of LD symptoms, and further research with this population is warranted.
Source : Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. 2012;5(4):9-14.
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Massage Increases Oxytocin and Reduces Adrenocorticotropin Hormone in Humans
Vera Morhenn, MD ; Laura E. Beavin, MA ; Paul J. Zak, PhD
Human beings are highly social creatures who offen touch each other during social interactions. Although the physiologic effects of touch are not understood fully, it appears to sustain social bonds and to increase cooperative behaviors. Oxytocin (OT) is a hormone known to facilitate social bonding, and touch may affect OT release. Previous studies seeking to relate massage and oxytocin in humans have been inconsistent in their fndings.
This study examined the effect of massage on oxytocin and also measured its effect on other physiologic factors, including adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH),nitric oxide (NO), and beta-endorphin (BE).
The research team advertised that the trial would study relaxation and assigned participants randomly to the intervention or the control group. A lab administrator assigned a random numeric code to participants to mask their identities.
The study took place at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA.
Ninety-five people from UCLA gave written informed consent for participation in the study,with the team paying them to participate. The intervention group included 65 participants and the control group 30 participants.
For the intervention (massage) group, the research team drew participants’ blood and followed the blood draw with 15 minutes of moderate-pressure massage on the upper back. The control (rest) group rested quietly for 15 minutes after the blood draw. A second blood draw followed for both groups.
The research team assayed OT, ACTH,NO, and BE. The team used four survey instruments to examine the relationship between personality factors and the physiologic measures of interest. The team analyzed data using SPSS 15.0 for Windows.
Massage was associated with an increase in OT and reductions in ACTH, NO, and BE. Comparing the effects of massage for the massage group with those for the rest group, the research team found signifcant differences between groups for changes in OT, ACTH, NO, and BE .
This study is the frst using a large sample of mixed gender that demonstrates that massage increases OT and decreases ACTH, NO, and BE. These fndings may help explain the mechanisms through which socia connections reduce morbidity and mortality.
Source : Altern Ter Health Med. 2012;18(6):11-18.
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