Research - Licorice
Efficacy of whole extract of licorice in neurological improvement of patients after acute ischemic stroke
- Parsa Ravanfara, ,
- Golnaz Namazia,
- Mahsa Atigha,
- Shaghayegh Zafarmanda,
- Azadeh Hamedib,
- Alireza Salehic,
- Sadegh Izadia, ,
- Afshin Borhani-Haghighia
Licorice root has been reported to contain several neuroprotective compounds. In the present study we investigated its benefit in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke for which, treatment modalities are limited.
Randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial.
75 patients admitted to the neurology emergency department of Namazi hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke.
InterventionPatients were randomly prescribed oral 450 mg or 900 mg licorice extract or placebo capsules three times daily for 7 days. National institute of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) scores were assessed before initiation of therapy and 3 months after treatment. Improvement of these scores were compared between study and control groups.
Mean NIHSS scores in 450 mg and 900 mg groups decreased from an initial score of 10.68 and 10.44 to 6.4 and 5.48 after 3 months respectively; while in the control group changed from 8.36 to 5.64. The decline in NIHSS scores were significantly greater in licorice treated groups than the control group. Similarly the decrease in MRS was greater in the licorice treated groups (4.2–2.9 in 450 mg licorice group, and 4.4–2.8 in 900 mg licorice group) versus the control group (3.9–2.8). None of the participants developed adverse reactions attributed to licorice overdose.
The results of this study support the beneficial effect of whole licorice extract in neurologic improvement of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Licorice may be useful as a medication for the treatment of the adverse effects caused by acute ischemic stroke.
Source : Journal Herbal Medicine
Link to Full Article
The Pharmacological Activities of Licorice
Rui Yang, Li-qiang Wang, Bo-chuan Yuan, Ying Liu
Licorice is one of the oldest and most frequently used herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. It contains more than 20 triterpenoids and 300 flavonoids. In recent years, a lot of studies have reported that the active compounds isolated from licorice possess antitumor, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and several other activities that contribute to the recovery and protection of the nervous, alimentary, respiratory, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems. In this paper, nine different pharmacological activities of licorice are summarized. The active compounds responsible for these pharmacological activities, the molecular mechanisms, and in vivo and in vitro studies are listed in detail. Furthermore, the clinical therapeutics and toxicity studies of licorice are also discussed. We hope this work can provide a basis for further studies concerning with the safe and effective use of licorice.
Source : Journal Planta Medica
Link to Full Article
Hepatoprotective effect of licorice, the root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer, in alcohol-induced fatty liver disease
- Jae-Chul Jung†,
- Yun-Hee Lee†,
- Sou Hyun Kim,
- Keuk-Jun Kim,
- Kyung-Mi Kim,
- Seikwan Oh and
- Young-Suk Jung
Our previous study suggested that licorice has anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells and anti-oxidative activity in tert-butyl hydroperoxide–induced oxidative liver damage. In this study, we evaluated the effect of licorice on chronic alcohol-induced fatty liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress.
Raw licorice was extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analysis of its components was performed by using LC–MS/MS. Mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without licorice for 4 weeks.
We have standardized 70 % fermented ethanol extracted licorice and confirmed by LC-MS/MS as glycyrrhizic acid (GA), 15.77 ± 0.34 μg/mg; liquiritin (LQ), 14.55 ± 0.42 μg/mg; and liquiritigenin (LG), 1.34 ± 0.02 μg/mg, respectively. Alcohol consumption increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and the levels of triglycerides and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Lipid accumulation in the liver was also markedly induced, whereas the glutathione level was reduced. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively inhibited by licorice treatment. In particular, the hepatic glutathione level was restored and alcohol-induced TNF-α production was significantly inhibited by licorice.
Taken together, our data suggests that protective effect of licorice against alcohol-induced liver injury may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity and enhancement of antioxidant defense.
Source : BMC Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Link to Full Article
Glycyrrhizin as antiviral agent against Hepatitis C Virus
Usman A Ashfaq1*, Muhammad S Masoud1, Zafar Nawaz2 and Sheikh Riazuddin3
1 Division of Molecular Medicine, National Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan
2 Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute, University of Miami, USA
3 Allama Iqbal Medical College, University of Health sciences, Lahore
Hepatitis C virus is a major cause of chronic liver diseases which can lead to permanent liver damage, hepatocellular carcinoma and death. The presently available treatment with interferon plus ribavirin, has limited benefits due to adverse side effects such as anemia, depression, fatigue, and "flu-like" symptoms. Herbal plants have been used for centuries against different diseases including viral diseases and have become a major source of new compounds to treat bacterial and viral diseases.
The present study was design to study the antiviral effect of Glycyrrhizin (GL) against HCV. For this purpose, HCV infected liver cells were treated with GL at non toxic doses and HCV titer was measured by Quantitative real time RT-PCR.
Results and Discussion
Our results demonstrated that GL inhibit HCV titer in a dose dependent manner and resulted in 50% reduction of HCV at a concentration of 14 ± 2 μg. Comparative studies were made with interferon alpha to investigate synergistic effects, if any, between antiviral compound and interferon alpha 2a. Our data showed that GL exhibited synergistic effect when combined with interferon. Moreover, these results were verified by transiently transfecting the liver cells with HCV 3a core plasmid. The results proved that GL dose dependently inhibit the expression of HCV 3a core gene both at mRNA and protein levels while the GAPDH remained constant.
Our results suggest that GL inhibit HCV full length viral particles and HCV core gene expression or function in a dose dependent manner and had synergistic effect with interferon. In future, GL along with interferon will be better option to treat HCV infection.
Source : Journal of Translational Medicine
Link to full Article
Identification of Licopyranocoumarin and Glycyrurol from Herbal Medicines as Neuroprotective Compounds for Parkinson's Disease
Takahiro Fujimaki, Shinji Saiki, Etsu Tashiro, Daisuke Yamada, Mitsuhiro Kitagawa, Nobutaka Hattori mail, Masaya Imoto mail
In the course of screening for the anti-Parkinsonian drugs from a library of traditional herbal medicines, we found that the extracts of choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to protected cells from MPP+-induced cell death. Because choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to commonly contain the genus Glycyrrhiza, we isolated licopyranocoumarin (LPC) and glycyrurol (GCR) as potent neuroprotective principals from Glycyrrhiza. LPC and GCR markedly blocked MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death and disappearance of mitochondrial membrane potential, which were mediated by JNK. LPC and GCR inhibited MPP+-induced JNK activation through the suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, thereby inhibiting MPP+-induced neuronal PC12D cell death. These results indicated that LPC and GCR derived from choi-joki-to and daio-kanzo-to would be promising drug leads for PD treatment in the future.
Source : PlosOne
Link to Full Article
Hepatoprotective Effects of Silybum marianum (Silymarin) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (Glycyrrhizin) in Combination: A Possible Synergy
Mahmood Rasool,1 Javed Iqbal,2 Arif Malik,3 Hafiza Sobia Ramzan,3 Muhammad Saeed Qureshi,3 Muhammad Asif,4 Mahmood Husain Qazi,5 Mohammad Amjad Kamal,6 Adeel Gulzar Ahmed Chaudhary,1 Mohammed Hussain Al-Qahtani,1 Siew Hua Gan,7 and Sajjad Karim1
1Center of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research, King Abdulaziz University, Post Box No. 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pharmacy, University of Lahore, Pakistan
3The Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Pakistan
4Department of Biotechnology and Informatics, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan
5Center for Research in Molecular Medicine, University of Lahore, Pakistan
6King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
7Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia
Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and transaminase reactions are some of the mechanisms that can lead to liver dysfunction. A time-dependent study was designed to evaluate the ability of silymarin (SLN) and glycyrrhizin (GLN) in different dosage regimens to lessen oxidative stress in the rats with hepatic injury caused by the hepatotoxin carbon tetrachloride. Wistar male albino rats ( = 60) were randomly assigned to six groups. Group A served as a positive control while groups B, C, D, E, and F received a dose of CCl4 (50% solution of CCl4 in liquid paraffin, 2 mL/kg, intraperitoneally) twice a week to induce hepatic injury. Additionally, the animals received SLN and GLN in different doses for a period of six weeks. CCl4 was found to induce hepatic injury by significantly increasing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances while decreasing total protein and the activities of reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Treatment with various doses of SLN and GLN significantly reduced ALT, AST, ALP, and TBARS levels and increased GSH, SOD, and CAT levels. Our findings indicated that SLN and GLN have hepatoprotective effects against oxidative stress of the liver.
Source : Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Link to Full Article
Dried Licorice Root Fights the Bacteria That Cause Tooth Decay and Gum Disease
Scientists are reporting identification of two substances in licorice -- used extensively in Chinese traditional medicine -- that kill the major bacteria responsible for tooth decay and gum disease, the leading causes of tooth loss in children and adults. In a study in ACS' Journal of Natural Products, they say that these substances could have a role in treating and preventing tooth decay and gum disease.
Stefan Gafner and colleagues explain that the dried root of the licorice plant is a common treatment in Chinese traditional medicine, especially as a way to enhance the activity of other herbal ingredients or as a flavoring. Despite the popularity of licorice candy in the U.S., licorice root has been replaced in domestic candy with anise oil, which has a similar flavor. Traditional medical practitioners use dried licorice root to treat various ailments, such as respiratory and digestive problems, but few modern scientific studies address whether licorice really works. (Consumers should check with their health care provider before taking licorice root because it can have undesirable effects and interactions with prescription drugs.) To test whether the sweet root could combat the bacteria that cause gum disease and cavities, the researchers took a closer look at various substances in licorice.
They found that two of the licorice compounds, licoricidin and licorisoflavan A, were the most effective antibacterial substances. These substances killed two of the major bacteria responsible for dental cavities and two of the bacteria that promote gum disease. One of the compounds -- licoricidin -- also killed a third gum disease bacterium. The researchers say that these substances could treat or even prevent oral infections.
Source : Science Daily
Link to Source
Liquorice Root Found to Contain Anti-Diabetic Substance
Researchers have discovered a promising anti-diabetic substance in the amorfrutin class of natural substances.
It provides the raw material for liquorice candy, calms the stomach and alleviates diseases of the airways: liquorice root. Chosen as the "Medicinal plant 2012," the root has been treasured in traditional healing since ancient times. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin have now discovered that liquorice root also contains substances with an anti-diabetic effect. These amorfrutins not only reduce blood sugar, they are also anti-inflammatory and are very well tolerated. Thus, they may be suitable for use in the treatment of complex metabolic disorders.
Natural substances have a surprising and often largely unexploited potential in the prevention and treatment of common diseases. For example, liquorice root Glycyrrhiza contains different substances that help to alleviate disorders of the airways and digestive system. It has been used for millennia in traditional healing and is mainly administered in the form of tea. A team of researchers working with Sascha Sauer from the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Genetics in Berlin has now discovered that the plant from the papilionaceae or leguminous family might also be effective in the treatment of adult (type 2) diabetes. The scientists identified a group of natural substances with an anti-diabetic effect, the amorfrutins, in the plant's edible root.
The substances, which have a simple chemical structure, are not only found in liquorice root, but are also in the fruit of the Amorpha fruticosa bush. The new anti-diabetic agents were named after this plant, which is native to the US, Canada and Mexico. As the researchers demonstrated using diabetic mice, the amorfrutins not only have characteristics that reduce blood sugar, they are also anti-inflammatory in their effect. Moreover, they also prevent fatty liver -- a common disease caused by excessively fat-rich nutrition.
"The health-beneficial effects are based on the fact that the amorfrutin molecules dock directly onto a receptor in the nucleus called PPARγ," explains Sascha Sauer. PPARγ plays an important role in the cell's fat and glucose metabolism. The binding of the amorfrutin molecules activates various genes that reduce the plasma concentration of certain fatty acids and glucose. The reduced glucose level prevents the development of insulin resistance -- the main cause of adult diabetes.
"Although there are already drugs on the market that affect the PPARγ receptor, they are not selective enough in their effect and cause side effects like weight gain and cardio-vascular problems," says Sascha Sauer. In contrast, as demonstrated by the studies carried out to date, the amorfrutins are very well tolerated. "However, drinking liquorice tea or eating liquorice will not help to treat diabetes," explains the scientist. "The concentration of the substances in the tea and liquorice is far too low to be effective." The researchers therefore developed special extraction processes to obtain the amorfrutins from the plant in sufficient concentrations. This could be used to produce amorfrutin extracts on an industrial scale.
The newly discovered active substances not only seem to hold great promise for the treatment of complex metabolic disorders, they may also be suitable for prophylactic use. "The amorfrutins can be used as functional nutritional supplements or as mild remedies that are individually tailored to the patient," says Sascha Sauer. "In view of the rapid spread of metabolic diseases like diabetes, it is intended to develop these substances further so that they can be used on humans in the future." To do this, the researchers must now test the effect of the substances and the plant amorfrutin extracts in clinical studies on diabetes patients
Source : Science Daily
Link to Source
An Extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra (GutGard) Alleviates Symptoms of Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study
Kadur Ramamurthy Raveendra, 1 Jayachandra, 2 Venkatappa Srinivasa, 3 Kadur Raveendra Sushma, 1 Joseph Joshua Allan, 4 * Krishnagouda Shankargouda Goudar, 4 Hebbani Nagarajappa Shivaprasad, 4 Kudiganti Venkateshwarlu, 4 Periasamy Geetharani, 4 Gopalakrishna Sushma, 4 and Amit Agarwal 4
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard, an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra, in patients with functional dyspepsia. The primary outcome variables of the study were the change in the severity symptoms and the global assessment of efficacy. The quality of life was evaluated as a secondary outcome measure. The patients received either placebo or GutGard (75mg twice daily) for 30 days. Efficacy was evaluated in terms of change in the severity of symptoms (as measured by 7-point Likert scale), the global assessment of efficacy, and the assessment of quality of life using the short-form Nepean Dyspepsia Index. In comparison with placebo, GutGard showed a significant decrease (P ≤ .05) in total symptom scores on day 15 and day 30, respectively. Similarly, GutGard showed marked improvement in the global assessment of efficacy in comparison to the placebo. The GutGard group also showed a significant decrease (P ≤ .05) in the Nepean dyspepsia index on day 15 and 30, respectively, when compared to placebo. GutGard was generally found to be safe and well-tolerated by all patients. GutGard has shown significant efficacy in the management of functional dyspepsia.
Source : Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 216970.
Link to Full Article