Indian Traditional Medicine / Ayurveda
Triphala improves glucose homeostasis by alleviating atherogenic lipids and oxidative stress in human Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Nita Singh1 , Sunil Mahajan1, Senthil K Subramani1,Dhananjay Yadav2, Lokendra Singh3, Prasad GBKS1
Aims: ‘Triphala’ constituting equal parts of three medicinal dried plant fruits Emblica Officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica Gaertn. is an antioxidant rich Ayurvedic formulation. The present study assessed therapeutic as well as protective effects of Triphala on human subjects with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT).
Materials and methods: Triphala at a dose of 5 gms BD was administered to two cohorts viz., IGT, N= 20 and T2DM, N=30 consecutively for a period of 12 months. The therapeutic efficacy was assessed quarterly by monitoring blood glucose and lipid levels; the protective effect by monitoring antioxidants level quarterly and DNA damage annually. Toxicity if any, to liver and kidney due to long term administration was assessed quarterly in both cohorts.
Results: Continuous ‘Triphala’ therapy for 12 months significantly reduced blood glucose (p≤0.001) and lipid levels (p≤0.05) in both the cohorts. Triphala resisted oxidative stress generated during the course of hyperglycemia by significantly increasing the activity of super oxide dismutase and Catalase (p≤0.001) and the level of reduced glutathione (p≤0.001). Protective effect on DNA was accessed through significant reduction in the comet tail length (p≤0.001).
Conclusions: ‘Triphala’ ameliorated not only the oxidative stress but also normalized glucose and lipid homeostasis in subjects with impaired glucose and T2DM.
Source : International Journal Ayurvedic Medicine
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Neuroprotective effect of Tagara, an Ayurvedic drug against methyl mercury induced oxidative stress using rat brain mitochondrial fractions
Dhanoop Manikoth Ayyathan, Rajasekaran Chandrasekaran and Kalaivani Thiagarajan*
Methyl mercury (MeHg), an important environmental toxicant is implicated in neurological disorders such as Hunter-Russell syndrome and Autism. Therefore, the present work is in search of new drugs that can alleviate MeHg toxicity. In this connection, Tagara, an ayurvedic drug is used for assessing its neuro protective effect against MeHg toxicity.
In the present study, we assessed the phytochemical contents of Tagara by colorimetric and HPLC analyses. The neuroprotective effect of Tagara on MeHg induced neurotoxicity was measured in terms of viability by MTT assay and oxidative stress in terms of catalase activity, glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels. Further, the chelating effect of Tagara towards MeHg was performed to identify the molecular mechanism. Statistical analysis was done by statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 16.0.
The results demonstrated that Tagara contains significant amounts of phenols and flavonoids. Also, HPLC analysis of Tagara revealed the presence of essential oils such as hydroxyvalerenic and valerenic acids. Our results demonstrated that exposure of rat brain mitochondrial fractions to MeHg resulted in a dose dependent death in MTT assay and IC 50 value was found to be 10 μM. However, a 250 μg dose of Tagara effectively prevented MeHg induced mitochondrial damage. The oxidative stress caused by MeHg results in elevated levels of reactive oxygen species as evidenced by elevated TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) levels and diminished catalase enzyme activity and glutathione content. However, Tagara at 250 μg concentration offsets these alterations caused by MeHg. Further, Tagara also diminished GSH oxidation caused by MeHg, confirming its chelating effect, one of the molecular mechanisms that triggers protection against oxidative damage.
Our results revealed that MeHg induced toxicity is predominantly mediated through oxidative stress mechanism and the propensity of Tagara to abolish such reactions. Hence, we propose that Tagara with a source of potential neuroprotectants may be a useful approach to alleviate MeHg associated neurotoxicity.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Manihot esculenta Crantz leaves in Wistar rats
Satish E. Bahekar and Ranjana S. Kale1
Background:Use of Manihot esculenta Crantz (MEC) plant has been mentioned in literature of Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Central Tuber Crops Research Institute and many others. It is also known commonly as tapioca, continues to be a crop of food security for the millions of people, especially in the developing countries of the globe including India. Medicinal uses of this plant including diarrhea have been mentioned in literature, but scientific evidence is lacking.
Objective:The objective was to study antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic leaf extract of MEC in Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods:Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves in the doses of 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg were used in Wistar rats of either sex. Experimental models used were castor oil-induced intestinal fluid accumulation and charcoal passage test. Loperamide and atropine sulfate were the standard drugs used in these models respectively.
Results:MEC extracts decreased intestinal fluid volume in dose dependent manner no extract group was comparable with standard drug loperamide (5 mg/kg). MEC extracts also significantly inhibited gastrointestinal motility in dose dependent manner. MEC (100 mg/kg) and MEC (200 mg/kg) were comparable with standard drug atropine sulfate (5 mg/kg) in this aspect. <0.05 were considered to be significant.
Conclusions:Ethanolic extract of MEC leaves exhibited significant antidiarrheal activity by decreasing intestinal fluid accumulation and the gastrointestinal motility in Wistar rats.
Source : J Ayurveda Integr Med.
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Monitoring in vitro antibacterial efficacy of 26 Indian spices against multidrug resistant urinary tract infecting bacteria
Sibanarayan Rath, Rabindra N. Padhy
Central Research Laboratory, Institute of Medical Sciences (IMS) & Sum Hospital, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India.
To screen methanolic extracts of 26 commonly used Indian spices against nine species of uropathogenic bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), isolated from clinical samples of a tertiary care hospital for antibacterial activity.
Bacterial strains were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity testing by Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method. Monitoring antibacterial potentiality of spice extracts was done by the agar-well diffusion method with multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of nine uropathogens.
The Gram-positive (GP) bacteria E. faecalis and S. aureus were resistant to 16 of the 21 antibiotics used. Among the Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, resistant patterns were A. baumannii and E. aerogenes to 12, C. freundii to 14, E. coli to 12, K. pneumoniae to 10, P. mirabilis to 11, and P. aeruginosa to 15 antibiotics of the 18 antibiotics used. The most effective 15 spices, having at least 25–29 mm as the size of the zone of inhibition, were Allium cepa, Brassica juncea, Cinnamomum tamala, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Mentha spicata, Murraya koenigii, Nigella sativa, Papaver somniferum, Piper nigrum, S. aromaticum, Trachyspermum ammi, and Trigonella foenum for at least one of the GP or GN MDR bacterial strains used. Moderate control capacity was registered by nine spices, Curcuma amada, Foeniculum vulgare, Illicium verum, Mentha spicata, Papaver somniferum, Syzygium aromaticum, Trachyspermum ammi, Trigonella foenum, and Zingiber officinale. However, the best two spices for controlling all the pathogens used were C. zeylanicum and C. longa, with the highest value of 29 mm as the inhibition zone size.
The most effective and unique 16 spice plants recorded for the in vitro control of MDR uropathogens could further be pursued for the development of complementary and supplementary medicine against MDR bacteria.
Source : Integrative Medicine Research
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Antibacterial activity of Acmella paniculata extract on human pathogenic bacteria
Krishna M.P, Rinoy Varghese, Mahesh Mohan, A.A. Mohamed Hatha
Abstract: The use of plant in treatment of infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine. On the basis of ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activity of aqueous extract of different parts (leaf, root, shoot and flower) of Acmella paniculata were determined by agar diffusion-method against some human pathogenic bacteria. The antibacterial screening of aqueous extract carried out in vitro against the following bacteria viz., Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The results of the present study showed that the aqueous extracts of flower and leaf showed relatively high activity against the tested pathogens and theroot showed comparatively low antibacterial activity. Root showed moderate activity against the tested pathogens. Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were the most resistant strains on Acmella paniculata extracts. A maximum inhibition zone of 27 mm and 24 mm showed by flower and leaf extract respectively against Salmonella typhi. The present screening result demonstrated that the Indian traditional medicinal plant Acmella paniculata aqueous extracts has potent antibacterial activity and the studied plant may be new source for novel antibacterial compound discovery for treating drugs resistant human pathogens.
Source : Intl Journal of Herbal Medicine
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A brief review on the Botanical Aspects and Therapeutic Potentials of Important Indian Medicinal Plants
Wungsem Rungsung, Sreya Dutta, Debajyoti Das,Jayram Hazra
Medicinal plants have been used in virtually all cultures as a source of medicine since time immemorial. World Health Organization also currently encourages, recommends and promotes traditional herbal medicines in national health care programmes as such drugs are easily available at low cost and inherently safer than the potent synthetic drugs. The safety, quality and efficacy of medicinal plants are, therefore, required to be addressed through interdisciplinary research. Medicinal plant species which are endangered or rare should be identified and conserved through the coordinated effort of in situ and ex situ strategies. The wild medicinal plants should be explored to bring them under cultivation. The Indian subcontinent is a vast repository of medicinal plants. It is estimated that a total of over 7500 species of plants are used as medicines by several ethnic communities of India
Source : International Journal of Herbal Medicine
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