Research - Grapes
Grapes are said to be the oldest cultivated fruit.
Grapes are mentioned in the Bible, Noah is said to have planted a vineyard on Mount Ararat where the Ark came to rest after the flood - "And Noah began to be an husbandman, and he planted a vineyard:" Genesis 9:20. After the Flood Noah became a farmer and one of the plants he raised was grapes.
In ancient times grapes were considered to be the Food of the gods. The medicinal value of grapes has been heralded from the time of the Egyptians, images of grapes can be seen on the Pyramids and winemaking scenes appear on tomb walls and in the tombs of pre-Christ era as well. Wine jars in large quantities were buried in the tombs of the pharoahs at Abydos (see images below)
In the Stone Age, wild grapes were present in the Caucasus region, a region at the border of Europe and Asia. This was the time when man learnt fermentation and began to turn grapes into wine. The Egyptians were the first to make wine, they made it only for religious purposes and for their temple rituals. They did not indulge in social drinking. The Greeks and the Romans grew grapes for the production of other things, mainly sugar substitutes,as sugar was virtually unknown to them. They prepared different kinds of syrups like sapa, defrutum, passum, etc.. These syrups were of different concentrations and were used to add taste in various dishes. Verjuice; a product made out of unripened grapes was used as a vinegar substitute.
There are more than a thousand varieties of grapes, out of which only around 50 have commercial significance. Grapes have many medicinal properties, they work as an astringent, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic agent, anti-tumor agent, etc. They protect the liver and improve vascular activity. Grapes are rich in Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) a dietary polyphenol which possesses a fascinating spectrum of pharacologic properties
Grape Seed Extract Cream Promotes Surgical Wound Healing
Hemmati AA, Foroozan M, Houshmand G, Moosavi ZB, Bahadoram M, Maram NS.
The topical effect of grape seed extract 2% cream on surgery wound healing. Glob J Health Sci. 2015;7(3):52-58.
Wound healing can be affected by factors such as age, medications, nutrition, circulation and tissue hypoxia status, and use of localized antibiotics and antiseptics. Accelerated wound healing reduces the risk for infection, lowers the number of complications, and decreases costs. Studies suggest that using plant resources alone or combined with chemical agents promotes more effective wound healing. Grape (Vitis vinifera, Vitaceae) seed extract has been found to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, and antibacterial activities, which may help wound healing. The goal of this double-blind, clinical study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract on the healing of small surgical wounds in humans.
The 3-week study enrolled patients admitted to the Dermatology Clinic at Imam Khumeini Hospital at the Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in Ahvaz, Iran, for surgery on skin lesions. The patients were aged between 14 and 50 years, with benign skin lesions measuring between 3 mm and 1 cm. The lesions included skin tags and moles on the neck, trunk, and limbs. Both groups were similar in demographic data, skin type, clinical diagnosis of lesion, and lesion location and size. Patients were excluded if they had underlying diseases, were taking immunosuppressants, were pregnant, or had accompanying malignancy.
Forty patients were randomly assigned to use grape seed 2% cream (n=20) or placebo cream (n=20) topically. The topical grape seed cream was produced by the Faculty of Pharmacy at the university where the study was conducted. Grape seed 2% cream was based on Eucerin®; its aqueous phase was greater than its fat phase (about 60%). Also in the cream were preservatives and specific compounds for color and flavor (details not provided). The placebo cream contained the same ingredients, except for the grape seed extract.
All lesions were surgically removed with scalpel and/or surgical scissors after the skin was numbed with lidocaine and sterilized with Betadine®. They were then treated with the secondary intention method. After bleeding had stopped, the lesion was measured, cream was applied on the wound, and the wound was dressed.
Patients were instructed to wash their hands and wound and then apply the cream on the surface of the wound twice daily, completely covering the wound area, for 21 days. At day 1, wound level was considered 100% and rate of improvement, 0%. The patients were visited on days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21. At each visit, the surface area of the wound was measured, the shape of the lesion graphed, each wound photographed, and wound level and rate of improvement recorded. Two patients from the grape seed group and 3 from the placebo group withdrew from the study, leaving 35 patients whose data were analyzed at the end of the study.
Wound healing was significantly better in the grape seed group compared with the placebo group at day 3 (P=0.0001), day 7 (P=0.0001), day 10 (P=0.0001), and day 14 (P=0.036). Of the total number of lesions (1-2 per patient), 31 were examined in the grape seed group and 32 in the placebo group. On day 3, none of the lesions were completely healed; however, the mean level of healing in the grape seed group was 79.44% compared with 55.5% in the placebo group.
On day 7, none of the lesions in the placebo group had healed; 20 (64.5%) lesions in the grape seed group were fully healed (P=0.0001). On day 10, 9 (28.2%) lesions in the placebo group (28.2%) displayed complete healing, compared with complete healing of all 31 lesions in the grape seed group (P=0.0001). Levels of healing were 95.48% in the placebo group and 100% in the grape seed group. By day 21, all lesions in the placebo group had healed. The groups' mean healing times were 8 days (grape seed) versus 14.4 days (placebo).
The authors conclude that this study shows that topical use of grape seed extract cream can be effectively used to promote wound healing. They suggest its effectiveness may be due to its proanthocyanidins and additional antioxidant properties, which "trigger the release of vascular endothelial growth factor along with the promotion of fibroblasts to produce more collagen fibres," causing wound closure. Wound healing may also be aided by the extract's anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties.
A drawback of this study is the poor characterization of the grape seed extract used. In general, the composition of grape seed extracts is critically dependent on the protocol of extraction and purification used. This reflects in a very different distribution of proanthocyanidins in terms of molecular weight.
Source : American Botanical Council
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Acute effects of raisin consumption on glucose and insulin reponses in healthy individuals
Amin Esfahani1,2,3, Joanne Lam1and Cyril W. C. Kendall2,3,4*
1School of Medicine, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA
2Clinical Nutrition and Risk Factor Modification Center, St Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
3Department of Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
4College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada
Raisins are popular snacks with a favourable nutrient profile, being high in dietary fibre, polyphenols and a number of vitamins and minerals, in addition to being rich in fructose. In light of evidence demonstrating improvements in glycaemic control with moderate fructose intake and low-glycaemic index(GI)fruits, our aim was to determine the GI, insulin index (II) and postprandial responses to raisins in an acute feeding setting. A total of ten healthy participants(four male and six female) consumed breakfast study meals on four occasions over a 2- to 8-week period: meal 1: white bread (WB) (108 g WB; 50 gavailable carbohydrate) served as the control and was consumed on two separate occasions; meal 2: raisins (R50) (69 g raisins; 50 g available carbohydrate);and meal 3: raisins (R20) (one serving, 28 g raisins; 20 g available carbohydrate). Postprandial glucose and insulin were measured over a 2 h period for the determination of GI, glycaemic load (GL) and II. The raisin meals, R50 and R20, resulted in significantly reduced postprandial glucose and insulin responses when compared with WB (P<0·05). Furthermore, raisins were determined to be low-GI, -GL and -II foods. The favourable effect of raisins on postprandial glycaemic response, their insulin-sparing effect and low GI combined with their other metabolic benefits may indicate that raisins are a healthy choice not only for the general population but also for individuals with diabetes or insulin resistance.
Source : Journal of Nutritional Science
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A targeted approach for evaluating preclinical activity of botanical extracts for support of bone health
Yumei Lina1, Mary A. Murraya1, I. Ross Garretta2a3, Gloria E. Gutierreza2a4, Jeffry S. Nymana2a5, Gregory Mundya2a6 †, David Fasta7, Kevin W. Gellenbecka1 c1, Amitabh Chandraa7 and Shyam Ramakrishnana1a8
a1 Nutrilite Health Institute, 5600 Beach Boulevard, Buena Park, CA 90622, USA
a2 OsteoScreen Ltd, 2040 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78023, USA
a3 9909 Charthouse Cove, Austin, TX 78730, USA
a4 Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Road, San Antonio, TX 78238, USA
a5 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
a6 Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA
a7 Access Business Group, 7575 East Fulton Avenue, Ada, MI 49355, USA
a8 The Himalaya Drug Company, Makali, Tumkur Road, Bangalore – 562123, India
Using a sequential in vitro/in vivo approach, we tested the ability of botanical extracts to influence biomarkers associated with bone resorption and bone formation. Pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were found to exhibit anti-resorptive activity by inhibiting receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in MG-63 cells and to reduce IL-1β-stimulated calvarial 45Ca loss. A combination of pomegranate fruit and grape seed extracts were shown to be effective at inhibiting bone loss in ovariectomised rats as demonstrated by standard histomorphometry, biomechanical and bone mineral density measurements. Quercetin and licorice extract exhibited bone formation activity as measured by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) promoter activation, increased expression of BMP-2 mRNA and protein levels, and promotion of bone growth in cultured mouse calvariae. A combination of quercetin and licorice extract demonstrated a potential for increasing bone mineral density in an intact female rat model as compared with controls. The results from this sequential in vitro/in vivo research model yielded botanical extract formulas that demonstrate significant potential benefits for bone health.
Source : The Journal of Nutritional Sciences
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Active Component of Grape Seed Extract Effective Against Cancer Cells
A University of Colorado Cancer Center study published online ahead of print in the journal Nutrition and Cancer describes the laboratory synthesis of the most active component of grape seed extract, B2G2, and shows this synthesized compound induces the cell death known as apoptosis in prostate cancer cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed.
"We've shown similar anti-cancer activity in the past with grape seed extract (GSE), but now we know B2G2 is its most biologically active ingredient which can be synthesized in quantities that will allow us to study the detailed death mechanism in cancer cells," says Alpna Tyagi, PhD, of the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Tyagi works in the lab of CU Cancer Center investigator and Skaggs School of Pharmacy faculty member, Chapla Agarwal, PhD.
The group has spent more than a decade demonstrating the anti-cancer activity of GSE in controlled, laboratory conditions. For example, previous studies have shown the GSE effectiveness against cancer cells and have also shown its mechanism of action. "But until recently, we didn't know which constituent of GSE created this effect. This naturally occurring compound, GSE, is a complex mixture of polyphenols and also so far it has been unclear about the biologically active constituents of GSE against cancer cells," Tyagi says.
Eventually the group pinpointed B2G2 as the most active compound, but, "it's expensive and it takes a long time to isolate B2G2 from grape seed extract," Tyagi says.
This expense related to the isolation of B2G2 has limited the group's further exploration. So instead of purifying B2G2 from GSE, the group decided to synthesize it in the lab. The current study reports the success of this effort, including the ability to synthesize gram-quantity of B2G2 reasonably quickly and inexpensively.
In the paper's second half, the group shows anti-cancer activity of synthesized B2G2 similar in mechanism and degree to overall GSE effectiveness.
"Our goal all along has been a clinical trial of the biologically active compounds from GSE against human cancer. But it's difficult to earn FDA approval for a trial in which we don't know the mechanisms and possible effects of all active components. Therefore, isolating and synthesizing B2G2 is an important step because now we have the ability to conduct more experiments with the pure compound. Ongoing work in the lab further increases our understanding of B2G2's mechanism of action that will help for the preclinical and clinical studies in the future," Tyagi says.
Source : PRWeb
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Bio-Functional Aspects of Grape Seeds-A Review
Grapes are one of the most widely consumed fruits all over the world and have considerable importance for their medicinal and nutritive value for thousand of years. Grapes are rich in polyphenols and 60-70 % of grapes polyphenols exist in grape seeds. The seeds contain lipid, proteins, carbohydrates and 5-8 % polyphenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds present in grape seeds are flavonoids including gallic acid, flavan-3-ol monomers and their oligomeric and polymeric derivatives (procyanidins). The most abundant flavan-3-ol monomers isolated from grape seeds are Catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-O-gallate, and epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate. Three novel flavan oxidative derivatives named viniferones A, B and C have also been isolated from grape seeds. The grape seeds are chiefly known for their significant antioxidant properties. Scientific studies have claimed that the antioxidant potential of grape seeds proanthocyanidins is 20 times greater than vitamin E and 50 times greater than vitamin C. Grape seeds polyphenolic (Proanthocyanidin) extract have been marketed in France for decades as treatment for venous and capillary disorders (e.g., retinopathies, venous insufficiency, and vascular fragility. Recent studies have shown that procyanidins in grape seeds possess anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-allergic effects and prevent heart diseases and skin aging. The high purity grape seed extract should contain polyphenols NLT 95% and monomers NLT 10%; and the grape seed extract with ordinary quality should have a procyanidolic value NLT 95%, and monomer NLT 6%.
Source : International Journal of Phytomedicine
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Below are a further scientific studies on the medicinal properties of Grapes: grapes and human immunity, grapes preventing cancer, grapes and lung cancer, grapes and leukemia, grapes and colorectal cancer. Please don't be put off by the scientific jargon, simply be assured that grapes are very beneficial for health. I have highlighted in blue the important results and conclusions. So add grapes to your diet but make sure they are organic as they are listed as one of the "Dirty Dozen" they are highly sprayed with pesticides, herbicides etc. "What's on my food" after testing grapes found 4 known or probable carcinogens, 17 suspected Hormone Disruptors, 10 Neurotoxins and 6 developmental or Reproductive Toxicants!!
Grapes May Help Prevent Age-Related Blindness Study shows grapes provided more antioxidant protection for eyes than lutein
The study compared the impact of an antioxidant-rich diet on vision using mice prone to developing retinal damage in old age in much the same way as humans do. Mice either received a grape-enriched diet, a diet with added lutein, or a normal diet.
The result? Grapes proved to offer dramatic protection: the grape-enriched diet protected against oxidative damage of the retina and prevented blindness in those mice consuming grapes. While lutein was also effective, grapes were found to offer significantly more protection.
"The protective effect of the grapes in this study was remarkable, offering a benefit for vision at old age even if grapes were consumed only at young age," said principal investigator Silvia Finnemann, PhD, Department of Biological Sciences, Fordham University in New York.
Dr. Finnemann noted that results from her study also suggest that age-related vision loss is a result of cumulative, oxidative damage over time. "A lifelong diet enriched in natural antioxidants, such as those in grapes, appears to be directly beneficial for retinal health and function."
AMD is a progressive eye condition, leading to the deterioration of the center of the retina, called the macula. It is the leading cause of blindness in the elderly. Oxidative damage and oxidative stress are thought to play a pivotal role in the development of AMD.
"Preserving eye health is a key concern as we age and this study shows that grapes may play a critical role in achieving this," said Kathleen Nave, president of the California Table Grape Commission. "This is good news for consumers of all ages who enjoy grapes, and adds to the growing body of evidence that grapes offer an array of health benefits."
The California Table Grape Commission was created by the California legislature in 1967 to increase worldwide demand for fresh California grapes through a variety of research and promotional programs.
The California Table Grape Commission prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, disability, and where applicable sex, marital status, familial status, parental status, or religion. The California Table Grape Commission is an equal opportunity provider and employer.
(1) Yu,C.-C: et al., Dietary antioxidants prevent age-related retinal pigment epithelium damage and blindness in mice lacking the avB5 integrin, Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2011), doi:10.1016.
Source : Wall Street Journal (Click)
Regular Consumption of Concord Grape Juice Benefits Human Immunity.
Rowe CA, Nantz MP, Nieves C, West RL, Percival SS.
1 Food Science & Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida , Gainesville, Florida, USA.
γδ T cells are important immune surveillance cells residing in epithelial layers lining the intestine, lung, and reproductive tract. The main objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that consumption of dietary compounds from grapes would modify γδ T-cell function. Other factors related to immune function after grape juice consumption were also tested. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention was conducted: 100% grape juice made from Concord grapes or a placebo beverage was consumed by 85 individuals daily for 9 weeks. Subjects were asked not to consume other red, blue, and purple fruits during the study. Blood samples, taken at the beginning and the end, were analyzed for γδ T-cell numbers and proliferation, vitamin C, antioxidant capacity, and the ability to protect DNA from strand breaks. Those consuming the grape juice had significantly greater numbers of circulating γδ T cells and higher serum vitamin C levels compared to the placebo by two-way repeated-measure analysis of variance (P < .05). Individuals consuming the placebo had lower serum antioxidant activity, less γδ T-cell proliferation, and increased DNA strand breaks when challenged with H(2)O(2). Analysis of the data by structural equation modeling confirmed that 61% of the variance in biological functions at 9 weeks was due to grape juice consumption. Based on conventional statistical analyses, as well as on sophisticated modeling techniques, regular consumption of purple grape juice in the absence of other red, blue, or purple fruits benefited immunity in healthy, middle-aged human subjects
Source J. Med Food 2010 Dec 7. (Click)
Cancer Prevention and Treatment with Resveratrol: From Rodent Studies to Clinical Trials
Resveratrol (3,4′,5-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a dietary polyphenol derived from grapes, berries, peanuts, and other plant sources. During the last decade, resveratrol has been shown to possess a fascinating spectrum of pharmacologic properties. Multiple biochemical and molecular actions seem to contribute to resveratrol effects against precancerous or cancer cells. Resveratrol affects all three discrete stages of carcinogenesis (initiation, promotion, and progression) by modulating signal transduction pathways that control cell division and growth, apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The anticancer property of resveratrol has been supported by its ability to inhibit proliferation of a wide variety of human tumor cells in vitro. These in vitro data have led to numerous preclinical animal studies to evaluate the potential of this drug for cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy. This review provides concise, comprehensive data from preclinical in vivo studies in various rodent models of human cancers, highlighting the related mechanisms of action. Bioavailability, pharmacokinetic, and potential toxicity studies of resveratrol in humans and ongoing interventional clinical trials are also presented. The conclusion describes directions for future resveratrol research to establish its activity and utility as a human cancer preventive and therapeutic drug.
Source : Evidence Based Natural Health (click)
Grape Seed Proanthocyanidins Inhibit the Growth of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenografts by Targeting Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3, Tumor Cell Proliferation, and Angiogenic Facto
Suhail Akhtar1,Syed M. Meeran1,Nandan Katiyar1 and Santosh K. Katiyar1,2,3,4
Purpose: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Here, we assessed the chemotherapeutic effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPs) on human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vitro and in vivo using a tumor xenograft model.
Experimental Design: The effects of GSPs on human NSCLC cell lines in terms of cellular proliferation were determined. The chemotherapeutic effects of a GSP- supplemented AIN76A control diet fed to nude mice bearing tumor xenografts (A549 and H1299) were evaluated in terms of biomarkers of cell proliferation and angiogenesis and on insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 using immunohistochemical detection, ELISA, and Western blotting.
Results: In vitro treatment of NSCLC cells with GSPs resulted in inhibition of cellular proliferation. Administration of GSPs (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.5%, w/w) as a supplement of an AIN76A control diet resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of the growth of NSCLC (A549 and H1299) tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice (25-76%; P < 0.05-0.001). The growth-inhibitory effect of GSPs on the NSCLC xenograft tumors was associated with the enhancement of the levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in the tumor microenvironment and plasma and antiproliferative, antiangiogenic, and proapoptotic effects.
Conclusions: This preclinical study reveals for the first time that dietary GSPs have the ability to inhibit the growth of human NSCLC tumor xenografts grown in vivo in athymic nude mice. More studies are needed to develop GSPs as a pharmacologically safe agent for the prevention of lung cancer in humans.
SOURCE:Evidence Based Natural Health (Click)
Induction of Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells by Grape Seed Extract Occurs via Activation of c-Jun NH2-Terminal Kinase
Ning Gao1,2, Amit Budhraja2, Senping Cheng2,Hua Yao2, Zhuo Zhang2 and Xianglin Shi2
Purpose: To characterize the functional role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and other apoptotic pathways in grape seed extract (GSE)-induced apoptosis in human leukemia cells by using pharmacologic and genetic approaches.
Experimental Design: Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of GSE for 12 and 24 h or with 50 μg/mL GSE for various time intervals, after which apoptosis, caspase activation, and cell signaling pathways were evaluated. Parallel studies were done in U937 and HL-60 human leukemia cells.
Results: Exposure of Jurkat cells to GSE resulted in dose- and time-dependent increase in apoptosis and caspase activation, events associated with the pronounced increase in Cip1/p21 protein level. Furthermore, treatment of Jurkat cells with GSE resulted in marked increase in levels of phospho-JNK. Conversely, interruption of the JNK pathway by pharmacologic inhibitor (e.g., SP600125) or genetic (e.g., small interfering RNA) approaches displayed significant protection against GSE-mediated lethality in Jurkat cells.
Conclusions: The result of the present study showed that GSE induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells through a process that involves sustained JNK activation and Cip1/p21 up-regulation, culminating in caspase activation.
SOURCE : Evidence Based Natural Health (Click)
Grape Seed Extract Inhibits In vitro and In vivo Growth of Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells
Manjinder Kaur,1Rana P. Singh,1Mallikarjuna Gu,1Rajesh Agarwal,1,2 and Chapla Agarwal1,2
Purpose: Accumulating evidences suggest the beneficial effects of fruit-and-vegetable consumptioninlowering the riskof various cancers, including colorectal cancer.Herein,we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of proanthocyanidins, against colorectal cancer. Experimental Design: Effects of GSE were examined on human colorectal cancer HT29 and LoVo cells in culture for proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. The in vivo effect of oral GSE was examined on HT29 tumor xenograft growth in athymic nude mice.
Xenografts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for proliferation and apoptosis. The molecular changes associated with the biological effects of GSE were analyzed by Western blot analysis.
GSE (25-100 Ag/mL) causes a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth with concomitant increase in cell death. GSE inducedG1phase cell cycle arrest alongwith a marked increase in Cip1/p21protein level and a decrease in G1phase ^ associated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases.GSE-induced cell deathwas apoptotic and accompanied bycaspase-3 activation. GSE feeding to mice at 200 mg/kg dose showed time-dependent inhibition of tumor growth without any toxicity and accounted for 44% decrease in tumor volume per mouse after
8weeks of treatment. GSE inhibited cell proliferation but increased apoptotic cell death in tumors.GSE-treated tumors also showed enhanced Cip1/p21protein levels and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage.
In summary, our results show that GSE inhibits cell growth and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells and modulates cell cycle regulators with a strong effect for Cip1/p21 up-regulation. Usually, p53 plays a regulatory role in Cip1/p21 induction; however, in our studies, GSE up-regulates Cip1/p21 independent of p53 because HT29 cells showing a robust increase in Cip1/p21 harbor nonfunctional p53, although LoVo cells carry wild-type p53. Therefore, it would be of significance to investigate in future studies the p53-independent mechanisms of Cip1/p21 induction by GSE that might have a wide implication in cancer chemoprevention as p53 inactivation is one of the primary events in initiation, growth and progression of many types of cancers, including colorectal cancer. Furthermore, findings in xenograft study translate the anticancer effects and associated mechanisms of GSE observed in cell culture experiments in to an in vivo preclinical colorectal cancer model. However, a dose-dependent in vivo study with GSE is needed in future that would provide additional information regarding the lowest effective as well as highest nontoxic doses of GSE, which would be useful for the translational studies.GSE may be an effective chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer, and that growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of GSE against colorectal cancer could be mediated via an up-regulation of Cip1/p21.
Source: Evidence Based Natural Health (Click)