Research - Glaucoma
A Prospective Study of Folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 Intake in Relation to Exfoliation Glaucoma or Suspected Exfoliation Glaucoma.
Kang JH1, Loomis SJ2, Wiggs JL2, Willett WC3, Pasquale LR4.
IMPORTANCE Effective strategies for primary prevention are lacking for exfoliation glaucoma (EG), which is the most common type of secondary glaucoma.
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between B vitamin intake and EG or suspected EG (EG/SEG) risk. DESIGN, SETTING, AND
PARTICIPANTS National prospective cohort study using more than 20 years of follow-up data from the Nurses' Health Study (all female registered nurses) and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (all male health professionals) from June 1, 1980, to May 31, 2010 (Nurses' Health Study) and January 1, 1986, to December 31, 2010 (Health Professionals Follow-up Study). We included a subset of 78 980 Nurses' Health Study women and 41 221 Health Professionals Follow-up Study men who were 40 years or older, free of glaucoma, had completed diet questionnaires, and reported eye examinations (follow-up rate, >85%). EXPOSURES Cumulatively updated intake of B vitamins (folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12) as ascertained by repeated administration of validated questionnaires.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Incident cases of EG/SEG, totaling 399 (329 women and 70 men), were first identified with the questionnaires and were subsequently confirmed with medical records. Multivariable relative risks for EG/SEG were calculated in each cohort and then pooled with meta-analysis. RESULTS Vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake was not associated with EG/SEG risk in pooled analyses (P = .52 and P = .99 for linear trend, respectively). However, a suggestive trend of a reduced risk was observed with higher intake of folate: compared with the lowest quintile of cumulatively averaged updated total folate intake, the multivariable relative risk for EG/SEG for the highest quintile (≥654 μg/d) was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.54-1.04; P = .02 for linear trend). These results were not materially altered after adjustment for vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 intake. An association was observed for supplemental folate intake but not for dietary folate only (P = .03 and P = .64 for linear trend, respectively). Greater frequency of multivitamin use showed a modest suggestive inverse association (current multivitamin use of ≥6 times per week vs nonuse multivariable relative risk, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.64-1.11; P = .06 for linear trend).
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Higher total folate intake was associated with a suggestive lower risk for EG/SEG, supporting a possible causal role of homocysteine in EG/SEG.
Source : JAMA Opthalmol
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Research advances on the usage of traditional Chinese medicine for neuroprotection in glaucoma
1. Xue-song Mi (Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province, China )
2. Jing-xiang Zhong (Department of Ophthalmology, the First Affiliated Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510630, Guangdong Province, China )
3. Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang (Department of Anatomy, and the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China )
4. Kwok-Fai So (Department of Anatomy, and the State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, China )
ABSTRACT: Progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons is the main pathogenesis of glaucoma. The cause of glaucoma is not fully understood, but the neurodegeneration of glaucoma involves many mechanisms such as oxidative stress, glutamate toxicity and ischemia/reperfusion insult. In order to target these mechanisms, multiple neuroprotective interventions have been investigated to prevent the death of RGCs. Of note are some tonic herbs from the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmacopeia that have shown neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. TCM differs from Western medicine in that TCM exhibits complicated bioactive components, triggering many signaling pathways and extensive actions on vital organs. Modern scientific approaches have demonstrated some of their underlying mechanisms. In this review, we used Lycium barbarum and Ginkgo biloba as examples to elaborate the characteristics of TCM and their potential applications in neuroprotection in glaucoma.
Source : Journal Chinese Integrative Medicine
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Ginkgo biloba Extract and Bilberry Anthocyanins Improve Visual Function in Patients with Normal Tension Glaucoma
Seong Hee Shim,1 Joon Mo Kim,1 Chul Young Choi,1 Chan Yun Kim,2 and Ki Ho Park3,4
1Department of Ophthalmology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Vision Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
4Seoul Artificial Eye Center, Seoul National University Hospital Clinical Research Institute, Seoul, Korea.
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of GBE and anthocyanins on visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) based on the vascular theory of mechanisms of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Retrospective analysis was carried out by a chart review of 332 subjects (209 men and 123 women) who were treated with anthocyanins (n=132), GBE (n=103), or no medication (control, n=97). Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) test, logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA), intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after treatment. Complete ocular and systemic examinations were performed. The mean follow-up duration was 23.82±9.84 (range, 12–59) months; the mean anthocyanin treatment duration was 24.32±10.43 (range, 6–53) months, and the mean GBE treatment duration was 23.81±10.36 months (range, 6–59) months. After anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from −6.44 (±7.05) to −5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from −5.25 (±6.13) to −4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final BCVA was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG.
Source : Journal of Medicinal Food
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Short-Term Effects of Ginkgo biloba Extract on Peripapillary Retinal Blood Flow in Normal Tension Glaucoma
Jong Woon Park,1 Hee Jung Kwon,1 Woo Seok Chung,2 Chan Yun Kim,2 and Gong Je Seong2
Based on the vascular theory of glaucoma pathogenesis, we wanted to evaluate the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) on peripapillary blood flow in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG).
Thirty patients with NTG were randomly placed in the GBE-treated or control groups. The GBE-treated group received 80 mg GBE orally, twice a day for four weeks, and the control group received a placebo twice a day for four weeks. Complete ocular examinations including visual field, Heidelberg retina flowmeter, and systemic examinations were performed on the first study day and on the day treatment was completed.
After GBE treatment, the mean blood flow, volume, and velocity increased at almost all points, and there was a statistically significant increase in blood flow at almost all points, in comparison to the placebo. Blood volume significantly increased only in the superior nasal and superior temporal neuroretinal rim areas. GBE also significantly increased blood velocity in areas of the inferior temporal neuroretinal rim and superior temporal peripapillary area.
GBE administration appears to have desirable effect on ocular blood flow in NTG patients.
Source : Korean J Ophthalmol. 2011 October; 25(5): 323–328.
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Short-Term Effects of Acupuncture on Open-Angle Glaucoma in Retrobulbar Circulation: Additional Therapy to Standard Medication
Shin Takayama,1 Takashi Seki,1 Toru Nakazawa,2 Naoko Aizawa,2 Seri Takahashi,2 Masashi Watanabe,1 Masayuki Izumi,1 Soichiro Kaneko,1 Tetsuharu Kamiya,1 Ayane Matsuda,1 Akiko Kikuchi,1 Tomoyuki Yambe,3 Makoto Yoshizawa,4 Shin-ichi Nitta,3 and Nobuo Yaegashi1
1Department of Traditional Asian Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574, Japan
2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8574, Japan
3Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
4Research Division on Advanced Information Technology, Cyberscience Center, Tohoku University, Japan
Background. The relation between glaucoma and retrobulbar circulation in the prognosis has been indicated.
Purpose. To investigate the effects of acupuncture on retrobulbar circulation in open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients.
Methods. Eleven OAG patients (20 eyes with OAG) who were treated by topical antiglaucoma medications for at least 3 months were enrolled. Acupuncture was performed once at acupoints BL2, M-HN9, ST2, ST36, SP6, KI3, LR3, GB20, BL18, and BL23 bilaterally. Retrobulbar circulation was measured with color Doppler imaging, and intraocular pressure (IOP) was also measured at rest and one hour after rest or before and after acupuncture.
Results. The Δ value of the resistive index in the short posterior ciliary artery (𝑃< .01) and the Δ value of IOP (𝑃 < .01) were decreased significantly by acupuncture compared with no acupuncture treatment.
Conclusions. Acupuncture can improve the retrobulbar circulation and IOP, which may indicate the efficacy of acupuncture for OAG.
Source : Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 157090, 6 pages doi:10.1155/2011/157090
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