Research - Gastrointestinal Tract - General
The association between objective tongue color and endoscopic findings: results from the Kyushu and Okinawa population study (KOPS)
Mosaburo Kainuma12*, Norihiro Furusyo2, Yoshihisa Urita3, Masaharu Nagata1, Takeshi Ihara2, Takeshi Oji5, Toshiya Nakaguchi4, Takao Namiki5 and Jun Hayashi6
BackgroundThe relation between tongue color and gastroesophageal disease is unclear. This study was done to investigate the associations between tongue color (TC), endoscopic findings, Helicobacter.pylori infection status, and serological atrophic gastritis (SAG).
MethodsThe participants were 896 residents of Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, aged 28–86 years. The tongue was photographed, esophagogastroduodenoscopy was done, and serum antibody to H.pylori was measured. SAG was defined as a serum Pepsinogen (PG)Ilevel ≤70 ng/ml and a PGI/IIratio ≤3.0. TC was measured by the device-independent international commission on Illumination 1976 L*a*b* color space standards at four points: (1) edge, (2) posterior, (3) middle, and (4) apex. We also calculated the ratio of the tongue edge to the three other measured points to examine the association between the coating of the tongue and the endoscopic and laboratory findings.
ResultsParticipants were excluded who had two or more endoscopic findings (n = 315) or who had SAG without seropositivity to H.pylori (n = 33). The remaining 548 participants were divided into three groups: SAG and seropositive to H.pylori (n = 67), seropositive to H.pylori alone (n = 56), and without SAG and seronegative for H.pylori (n = 425). We divided 425 residents into a single endoscopic finding positive group (n = 207) and a negative group, which served as a control (n = 218). The most frequent single endoscopic finding was esophageal hernia (n = 110), followed by erosive esophagitis (n = 35) and erosive gastritis (EG) (n = 45). EH was significantly associated with TC (2b*/1b*) (P < 0.05). EG was significantly associated with TC (3a*, 3b*) (P < 0.05). Seropositivity to H.pylori was significantly associated with TC (3 L*, 3 L*/1 L*) (P < 0.05, <0.01), and seropositivity to both H.pylori and SAG was significantly associated with TC (3 L*/1 L*) (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis extracted TC (3a*, 3b*) as an independent factor associated with a differential diagnosis of EG (Odds ratio (OR) 2.66 P = 0.008, OR 2.17 P = 0.045).
ConclusionsThe tongue body color of the middle area reflects acute change of gastric mucosa, such as erosive gastritis. Tongue diagnosis would be a useful, non-invasive screening tool for EG.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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Effects of Berberine in the Gastrointestinal Tract — A Review of Actions and Therapeutic Implications
Chunqiu Chen,* Zhen Yu,* Yongyu Li,† Jakub Fichna‡ and Martin Storr§
*Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital † Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Digestive Disease Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China ‡ Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland §Department of Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich Munich, Germany Published 3 September 2014
Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid present in several plant species, including Coptis sp. and Berberis sp. In traditional medicine, extracts of berberine are used in the treatment of diarrhea of different origins. Recent studies have shown that berberine and its derivatives have significant biological effects on gastrointestinal (GI) and other functions and may become therapeutics for the treatment of diarrhea, gastroenteritis, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory conditions. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the actions of berberine in the GI tract. Binding and target sites, activated intracellular pathways, as well as the absorption and metabolism of berberine are discussed. Effects that may be useful in future clinical treatment, like antidiarrheal, anti-inflammatory and antitumor effects are critically reviewed and potential clinical applications are presented in detail.
Berberine has a wide spectrum of effects in the GI tract, as evidenced by results gathered in a series of basic and pre-clinical studies discussed in this review and summarized in Table 1. These include a potent anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and antinociceptive action, to name just a few. Despite the fact that the targets and mechanisms of action remain unknown and require further investigations, berberine has potential to be widely used in clinics in the therapy of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), intestinal injury or metabolic diseases. The data presented above warrants interest in berberine as potential drug for GI diseases and encourages further studies.
Source : American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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