Research - Garcinia mangostana
Phenolics from Garcinia mangostana alleviate exaggerated vasoconstriction in metabolic syndrome through direct vasodilatation and nitric oxide generation
- Hossam M. Abdallah,
- Hany M. El-Bassossy,
- Gamal A. MohamedEmail author,
- Ali M. El-halawany,
- Khalid Z. Alshali and
- Zainy M. Banjar
Background Exaggerated vasoconstriction plays a very important role in the hypertension, a major component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). In the current work, the potential protective effect of methanol extract of fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana L. on the exaggerated vasoconstriction in MetS has been investigated. In addition, the bioactive fraction and compounds as well as the possible mechanism of action have been illustrated.
Methods The effect of methanol extract of G. mangostana (GMT) fruit hulls on the vascular reactivity of aorta isolated from animals with MetS was investigated through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. GMT was partitioned with chloroform (I) and the remaining mother liquor was fractionated on a Diaion HP-20 with H2O, 50 and 100 % methanol to give fractions II, III, and IV, respectively. The effect of total extract (GMT), bioactive fraction and the bioactive compounds on the vasoconstriction were examined in aortae isolated from animals with MetS by incubation for 30 min before exposing aortae to cumulative concentrations of phenylephrine (PE). The direct relaxant effect was also examined by adding cumulative concentrations of the bioactive fraction and its bioactive compounds to PE precontracted vessels. In addition, aortic nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was investigated.
Results Bioassay-guided fractionation of GMT revealed isolation of garcimangosone D (1), aromadendrin-8-C-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 2,4,3′-trihydroxy benzophenone-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), maclurin-6-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (rhodanthenone) (4), epicatechin (5), and 2,3′,4,5′,6-pentahydroxy benzophenone (6). Only compounds 2, 4, and 5 significantly alleviated the exaggerated vasoconstriction of MetS aortae and in the same time showed significant vasodilation of PE pre-contracted aortae. To further illustrate the mechanism of action, the observed vasodilation was completely blocked by the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride and inhibited by guanylate cyclase inhibitor, methylene blue. However, vasodilation was not affected by the potassium channel blocker, tetraethylammonium or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. In addition, compounds 2, 4, and 5 stimulated NO generation from isolated aortae to levels comparable with acetylcholine. Furthermore, 4 and 5 inhibited reactive oxygen species generation in MetS aortae.
Conclusion The phenolic compounds 2, 4, and 5 ameliorated the exaggerated vasoconstriction in MetS aortae through vasodilatation-NO generation mechanism.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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α-Mangostin Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell
Hyun-Ho Kwak,1 In-Ryoung Kim,2 Hye-Jin Kim,3 Bong-Soo Park,1 and Su-Bin Yu1
Mangosteen has long been used as a traditional medicine and is known to have antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Although the effects of α-mangostin, a natural compound extracted from the pericarp of mangosteen, have been investigated in many studies, there is limited data on the effects of the compound in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this study, α-mangostin was assessed as a potential anticancer agent against human OSCC cells. α-Mangostin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little to no effect on normal human PDLF cells. α-Mangostin treatment clearly showed apoptotic evidences such as nuclear fragmentation and accumulation of annexin V and PI-positive cells on OSCC cells. α-Mangostin treatment also caused the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The expressions of the mitochondria-related proteins were activated by α-mangostin. Treatment with α-mangostin also induced G1 phase arrest and downregulated cell cycle-related proteins (CDK/cyclin). Hence, α-mangostin specifically induces cell death and inhibits proliferation in OSCC cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, suggesting that α-mangostin may be an effective agent for the treatment of OSCC.
Source : Journal Evidence Based Complementary Medicine
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Efficacy and Tolerability of an Herbal Formulation for Weight Management
Judith S. Stern,1,2 Jan Peerson,1,3 Artatrana T. Mishra,4 Venkata Sadasiva Rao Mathukumalli,5 and Poorna Rajeswari Konda6
1Department of Nutrition, University of California–Davis, Davis, California, USA.
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of California–Davis, Davis, California, USA.
3Program in International and Community Nutrition, University of California–Davis, Davis, California, USA.
4Department of General Medicine, Nagarjuna Hospitals, Vijayawada, India.
5Department of Internal Medicine, Alluri Sitarama Raju Academy of Medical Sciences (ASRAM), Eluru, India.6Suraksha Health Village, Vijayawada, India.
The clinical effects and tolerability of a novel herbal formulation comprising the extracts of Sphaeranthus indicus and Garcinia mangostana were assessed in two similarly designed randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,clinical trials in 100 human subjects with a body mass index (BMI) between 30 and 40kg/m2. Participants were randomized into two groups receiving either 400mg of herbal blend twice daily or two identical placebo capsules. All subjects received three meals (2000kcal/day) throughout the study and walked 5 days a week for 30min. The primary outcome was reduction inbody weight. Secondary outcomes were reduction in BMI and in waist and hip circumference. Serum glycemic, lipid, and adiponectin levels were also measured. Ninety-five subjects completed the trials, and data from these two studies were pooled and analyzed. At study conclusion (8 weeks), statistically significant reductions in body weight (5.2kg;P<.0001), BMI(2.2kg/m2;P<.0001), as well as waist (11.9cm;P<.0001) and hip circumferences (6.3cm;P=.0001) were observed in th eherbal group compared with placebo. An increase in serum adiponectin concentration was also found in the herbal grou pversus placebo (P=.0008) at study conclusion along with reductions in fasting blood glucose (12.2%,P=.01), cholesterol(13.8%,P=.002), and triglyceride (41.6%,P<.0001) concentrations. No changes were seen across organ function panels,multiple vital signs, and no major adverse events were reported. The minor adverse events were equally distributed between the two groups. Our findings suggest that the herbal blend appears to be a well-tolerated and effective ingredient for weight management.
Source : Journal of Medicinal Food
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