Research - Fish
Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and fish-oil consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study1,2,3,4,5
- Tamara B Harris,
- Xiaoling Song,
- Ilse Reinders,
- Thomas F Lang,
- Melissa E Garcia,
- Kristin Siggeirsdottir,
- Sigurdur Sigurdsson,
- Vilmundur Gudnason,
- Gudny Eiriksdottir,
- Gunnar Sigurdsson,
- Laufey Steingrimsdottir,
- Thor Aspelund,
- Ingeborg A Brouwer, and
- Rachel A Murphy⇑
Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may play a role in fracture, but studies have been largely confined to estimates of dietary intake.
Objective: We aimed to examine associations between fatty acids measured in late life and fish-oil consumption in early life, midlife, and late life with osteoporotic fracture risk.
Design: Osteoporotic fractures were determined from medical records over 5–9 y of follow-up in men and women aged 66–96 y. Data were analyzed from 1438 participants including 898 participants who were randomly selected from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study, which is an observational study, and 540 participants with incident fracture. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids were assessed by using gas chromatography. Fish-oil consumption was assessed by using validated questionnaires as never (referent), less than daily, or daily. HRs and 95% CIs adjusted for age, education, height, weight, diabetes, physical activity, and medications were estimated by using Cox regression.
Results: In men, the highest tertile of PUFAs, n–3 (ω-3), and eicosapentaenoic acid were associated with decreased fracture risk [HRs (95% CIs): 0.60 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.89), 0.66 (0.45, 0.95), and 0.59 (0.41, 0.86), respectively]. In women, PUFAs tended to be inversely associated with fracture risk (P-trend = 0.06), but tertiles 2 and 3 were not independently associated with risk. Tertile 2 of n–6 and arachidonic acid was associated with fracture risk in women [HRs (95% CIs): 1.43 (1.10, 1.85) and 1.42 (1.09, 1.85), respectively]. Daily fish-oil consumption in late life was associated with lower fracture risk in men (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.91). Daily fish-oil consumption in midlife was associated with lower fracture risk in women (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98).
Conclusions: Greater PUFA concentrations may be associated with lower osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults, particularly in men. Critical time periods for n–3 fatty acid consumption may differ by sex.
Source : American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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Vitamin D and the omega-3 fatty acids control serotonin synthesis and action, part 2: relevance for ADHD, bipolar, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior
Rhonda P. Patrick1 and Bruce N. Ames1
Nutrition and Metabolism Center, Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California, USA
Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Brain serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase 2, which is transcriptionally activated by vitamin D hormone. Inadequate levels of vitamin D (∼70% of the population) and omega-3 fatty acids are common, suggesting that brain serotonin synthesis is not optimal. We propose mechanisms by which EPA increases serotonin release from presynaptic neurons by reducing E2 series prostaglandins and DHA influences serotonin receptor action by increasing cell membrane fluidity in postsynaptic neurons. We propose a model whereby insufficient levels of vitamin D, EPA, or DHA, in combination with genetic factors and at key periods during development, would lead to dysfunctional serotonin activation and function and may be one underlying mechanism that contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and depression. This model suggests that optimizing vitamin D and marine omega-3 fatty acid intake may help prevent and modulate the severity of brain dysfunction.--
Source : The FASEB Journal
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Fish oil (n-3 fatty acids) in drug resistant epilepsy: a randomised placebo-controlled crossover study
- Christopher M DeGiorgio,
- Patrick R Miller,
- Ronald Harper,
- Jeffrey Gornbein,
- Lara Schrader,
- Jason Soss,
- Sheba Meymandi
Background n-3 fatty acids inhibit neuronal excitability and reduce seizures in animal models. High-dose fish oil has been explored in two randomised trials in drug resistant epilepsy with negative results. We performed a phase II randomised controlled crossover trial of low-dose and high-dose fish oil in participants with drug resistant epilepsy to explore whether low-dose or high-dose fish oil reduces seizures or improves cardiovascular health.
Methods Randomised placebo-controlled trial of low-dose and high-dose fish oil versus placebo (corn oil, linoleic acid) in 24 participants with drug resistant epilepsy. A three-period crossover design was utilised lasting 42 weeks, with three 10-week treatment periods and two 6-week washout periods. All participants were randomised in double-blind fashion to receive placebo, high dose or low dose in different sequences. The primary outcome was per cent change in total seizure frequency.
Findings Low-dose fish oil (3 capsules/day, 1080 mg eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid) was associated with a 33.6% reduction in seizure frequency compared with placebo. Low-dose fish oil was also associated with a mild but significant reduction in blood pressure. High-dose fish oil was no different than placebo in reducing seizures or improving cardiac risk factors.
Interpretation In this phase II randomised crossover trial, low-dose fish oil was effective in reducing seizures compared with placebo. The magnitude of improvement is similar to that of recent antiepileptic drug trials in drug resistant epilepsy (DRE). The results indicate that low-dose fish oil may reduce seizures and improve the health of people with epilepsy. These findings justify a large multicentre randomised trial of low-dose fish oil (n-3 fatty acids <1080 mg/day) in drug resistant epilepsy.
Source : J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry
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High Fish plus Fish Oil Intake Is Associated with Slightly Reduced Risk of Venous Thromboembolism: The Tromsø Study1,2
- Ida J. Hansen-Krone3,
- Kristin F. Enga3,
- Julie M. Südduth-Klinger4,
- Ellisiv B. Mathiesen5,6,
- Inger Njølstad7,
- Tom Wilsgaard7,
- Steven Watkins8,
- Sigrid K. Brækkan3,9,*, and
- John-Bjarne Hansen3,9
Current knowledge of the effect of fish consumption on risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is scarce and diverging. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of fish consumption and fish oil supplements on the risk of VTE in a population-based cohort. Weekly intake of fish for dinner and intake of fish oil supplements during the previous year were registered in 23,621 persons aged 25–97 y who participated in the Tromsø Study from 1994 to 1995. Incident VTE events were registered throughout follow-up (31 December 2010). Cox-regression models were used to calculate HRs for VTE, adjusted for age, body mass index, sex, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, physical activity, and education level. During a median of 15.8 y of follow-up there were 536 incident VTE events. High fish consumption was associated with a slightly reduced risk of VTE. Participants who ate fish ≥3 times/wk had 22% lower risk of VTE than those who consumed fish 1–1.9 times/wk (multivariable HR: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.60, 1.01; P = 0.06). The addition of fish oil supplements strengthened the inverse association with risk of VTE. Participants who consumed fish ≥3 times/wk who additionally used fish oil supplements had 48% lower risk than those who consumed fish 1–1.9 times/wk but did not use fish oil supplements (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.34, 0.79; P = 0.002). In conclusion, a high weekly intake (≥3 times/wk) of fish was associated with a slightly reduced risk of VTE, and the addition of fish oil supplements strengthened the inverse effect.
Source : Journal Nutrition
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Antidepressant-like effects of omega-3 fatty acids in postpartum model of depression in rats.
Arbabi L1, Baharuldin MT2, Moklas MA1, Fakurazi S1, Muhammad SI3.Author information
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs in 10-15% of childbearing women. It is hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids, which are components of fish oil, may attenuate depression symptoms. In order to examine this hypothesis, the animal model of postpartum depression was established in the present study. Ovariectomized female rats underwent hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP) regimen and received progesterone and estradiol benzoate or vehicle for 23 days, mimicking the actual rat's pregnancy. The days after hormone termination were considered as the postpartum period. Forced feeding of menhaden fish oil, as a source of omega-3, with three doses of 1, 3, and 9g/kg/d, fluoxetine 15mg/kg/d, and distilled water 2ml/d per rat started in five postpartum-induced and one vehicle group on postpartum day 1 and continued for 15 consecutive days. On postpartum day 15, all groups were tested in the forced swimming test (FST) and open field test (OFT), followed by a biochemical assay. Results showed that the postpartum-induced rats not treated with menhaden fish oil, exhibited an increase in immobility time seen in FST, hippocampal concentration of corticosterone and plasmatic level of corticosterone, and pro-inflammatory cytokines. These depression-related effects were attenuated by supplementation of menhaden fish oil with doses of 3 and 9g/kg. Moreover, results of rats supplemented with menhaden fish oil were comparable to rats treated with the clinically effective antidepressant, fluoxetine. Taken together, these results suggest that menhaden fish oil, rich in omega-3, exerts beneficial effect on postpartum depression and decreases the biomarkers related to depression such as corticosterone and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Source : Behav. Brain Res
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An open-label pilot study to assess the effectiveness of krill oil with added vitamins and phytonutrients in the relief of symptoms of PMS
Michael P Wakeman
School of cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham,
Abstract: An open-label pilot study over 4months to evaluate the effectiveness of a compound formulation of ingredients, which individually have been demonstrated to be implicated in the pathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome to ameliorate the most troublesome symptoms of the condition. The supplement provided thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, vitamin D, soy isoflavones, rosemary extract, and krill oil and was taken each day for the 3 months of the trial. Statistically significant effect was reported by the 29 women who completed the study in relief of anxiety, bloating, mood swings, breast tenderness, skin outbreaks, food cravings, fatigue, forgetfulness, insomnia, and headache after 3 months of treatment compared with baseline. This pilot study indicates the formulation to be effective, and a larger placebo-controlled trial is now planned.
Source : Nutrition and Dietary Supplements
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Six Months of Fish Oil Reverses Liver Disease in Children with Intestinal Failure
Children who suffer from intestinal failure, most often caused by a shortened or dysfunctional bowel, are unable to consume food orally. Instead, a nutritional cocktail of sugar, protein and fat made from soybean oil is injected through a small tube in their vein. For these children, the intravenous nutrition serves as a bridge to bowel adaptation, a process by which the intestine recovers and improves its capacity to absorb nutrition. But the soybean oil, which provides essential fatty acids and calories, has been associated with a potentially lethal complication known as intestinal failure–associated liver disease, which may require a liver and/or intestinal transplant. Such a transplant can prevent death, but the five-year post-transplant survival rate is only 50–70 percent.
Previous studies have shown that replacing soybean oil with fish oil in intravenous nutrition can reverse intestinal failure–associated liver disease. However, the necessary duration of fish oil treatment had not been established in medical studies.
Now, a clinical trial conducted at the Children's Discovery and Innovation Institute at Mattel Children's Hospital UCLA has found that, compared with soybean oil, a limited duration (24 weeks) of fish oil is safe and effective in reversing liver disease in children with intestinal failure who require intravenous nutrition. The researchers believe that fish oil may also decrease the need for liver and/or intestinal transplants — and mortality — associated with this disease.
The researchers' study, "Six Months of Intravenous Fish Oil Reverses Pediatric Intestinal Failure Associated Liver Disease," is published online in the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
"With this particular study, we set out to determine if a finite period of six months of intravenous fish oil could safely reverse liver damage in these children, and we have had some promising results," said lead author Dr. Kara Calkins, an assistant professor in the department of pediatrics in the division of neonatology and developmental biology at UCLA. "But because intravenous fish oil is not yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is much more costly than soybean oil, it is typically not covered by insurance. As a result, this oil is considered experimental and is currently available only under special protocols. If it proves safe and effective for patients, we hope it would eventually be available for wider use."
For the study, intravenous soybean oil was replaced with intravenous fish oil in 10 patients between the ages of 2 weeks and 18 years who had advanced intestinal failure–associated liver disease and who were at high risk for death and/or transplant. The researchers compared these subjects with 20 historical controls who had received soybean oil.
Results showed that the children receiving fish oil had a much higher rate of reversal of liver disease than those who received the standard soybean oil. In fact, after 17 weeks of fish oil, nearly 80 percent of patients experienced a reversal of their liver disease, while only 5 percent of the soybean patients saw a reversal.
The next phase of research will involve following children for up to five years after they stop fish oil to determine if their liver disease returns and if transplant rates are truly decreased, the study authors said.
"We are also trying to better understand how fish oil reverses this disease by investigating changes in proteins and genes in the blood and liver," Calkins said. "These studies will provide the scientific and medical community with a better understanding of this disease and how intravenous fish oil works."
For Isabella Piscione, who was one of the first patients at UCLA to receive the fish oil treatment under compassionate use, her outcome with the treatment paved the way for researchers to establish the six-month protocol. Because of multiple surgeries due to an obstruction in her intestines, Isabella was left with only 10 centimeters of intestine. She depended on intravenous nutrition for survival, which unfortunately resulted in liver damage.
When Isabella started the fish oil treatment, she was just over 6 months old and was listed for a liver and bowel transplant. Within a month of starting the treatment, her condition started to improve. By six months, her liver had healed, and she no longer needed a transplant.
"We cried tears of joy each week that we saw her getting better and better," said her father, Laureano Piscione. "She is a success story."
Source : Newswise
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Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study
Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to
exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters.
Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily) were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM) and selective attention.
Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p < 0.05). In contrast to placebo, n-3 PUFA lowered plasma triacylglycerides (P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), fglucose (p = 0.05), and s-TNF-α (p = 0.05), were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests.
Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline.
Source : Journal of Nutrition
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Fish Oil Could Be Therapy for Periodontal Disease
Periodontitis, inflammation of the tissue surrounding the teeth, affects more than half of adults and is linked to an increased risk of stroke and other heart problems. To evaluate whether fish oil supplementation could be an adjunct therapy for periodontitis, Dr. Alison Coates from the University of South Australia and colleagues from the School of Dentistry at University of Adelaide in Australia reviewed evidence from eight unique studies that involved humans. Their review of these studies showed that improvements in clinical measures were common in all studies, but were scientifically significant in two that used a combination of fish oil and aspirin. Although this is not conclusive evidence, intake of fish oil is recommended for health benefits beyond the teeth.
“I would recommend that people ensure they have a sufficient intake of long chain omega-3 fatty acids in their diet for general health,” said Coates. “In Australia, these types of fatty acids are considered to be essential with ~500 mg recommended as the suggested dietary target. This equates to approximately 2 fatty fish meals per week.”
There are no serious dangers to consuming fish oil. At high levels of fish oil above the GRAS limit, people may experience a delayed clotting time and at very high doses potential gastric upset. If people are taking blood thinning medication, then they should consult with a doctor.
The group reports that the evidence for fish oil being effective in reducing periodontal symptoms is building but there is a need for more well designed studies that evaluate the supplement both alone and in combination with aspirin to be able to tease out whether fish oil by itself is effective. It is important that compliance to treatment is considered and that the dose and length of supplementation is appropriate. A clinical trial is underway in Australia that is investigating the effects of fish oil as adjunct therapy for periodontitis.
Results from this study will be presented April 24, 2012 at the Experimental Biology 2012 meeting in San Diego, CA.
Source : Newswise
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Joint Status Improved by Lemon Verbena Extract Combined with Fish Oil
Caturla N, Funes L, Pérez-Fons L, Micol V.
Arthritis is characterized by inflammation of the joints, and there are 2 general types of the disease. Osteoarthritis (OA) is associated with age-related joint degeneration, while rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is caused by autoimmune joint inflammation. Cartilage destruction, synovial fluid disruption, mitochondrial dysfunction, and other joint-related problems have been found to be caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). Many plants used medicinally have antioxidant activity, and many plant antioxidant compounds alleviate diseases caused by inflammation.
Lemon verbena (Aloysia citriodora syn. A. triphylla and Lippia citriodora), used traditionally for a variety of ailments, contains the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phenylpropanoid compound verbascoside. In addition, the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), found in cold-water fish oil, have been shown to affect the immune system. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study investigated the effects of a mixture of lemon verbena extract and fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on patients with joint pain and dysfunction. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of both the extract and treatment mixture was assessed in vitro.
The lemon verbena extract was dissolved with water (5 mg/ml), and the verbascoside content of the extract was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Antioxidant activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and data expressed as µmole of Trolox equivalents (TE) per gram; in this particular assay, a higher ORAC value indicates stronger antioxidant activity.
Included patients were diagnosed by a physician as having joint discomfort and pain in knees, hips, elbows, hands, or shoulders for 3 months or more. Patients were excluded if they used medication other than for high cholesterol, or antihypertonic or antiarrhythmic agents. Patients were also excluded if they had plant, herbal medicine, vitamin, or mineral allergies. Patients were randomized to either supplement (n=23) or placebo (n=22) groups for the 9-week study. A capsule of the supplement (0.6 g) consisted of 370 mg of fish oil powder containing a ratio of 10:8 EPA to DHA, and 230 mg of lemon verbena extract containing 14% w/w verbascoside. All patients took 6 capsules daily of placebo or supplement, 2 before each meal from week 1 to week 5. At the beginning of week 6, patients took 3 capsules per day before meals until week 9. The dose per day of verbascoside from weeks 1-5 was 193 mg, and 97 mg for weeks 6-9.
The primary endpoints were joint pain, stiffness, and function. These were assessed using the Western Ontario McMaster (WOMAC) and Lequesne's surveys. The WOMAC questionnaire is designed to measure pain/stiffness and physical dysfunction, while Lequesne's assesses pain, discomfort, maximum distance walked, and daily activities. Reduced severity of these arthritis factors is indicated in a low score for both questionnaires. Surveys were completed by patients at baseline and at least once per week during the study.
It was found that verbascoside was the most common phenylpropanoid in the lemon verbena extract and occurred at 14.75 ± 0.85% w/w. Isolated verbascoside had an ORAC value of 11,710 ± 106 µmol TE/g, while the extract was 5,183 ± 300 µmol TE/g. The total supplement was found to have antioxidant activity of 1,065 ± 122 µmol TE/g. It is surmised that excipients associated with the omega-3 fatty acids may have interfered in the assay, resulting in a value lower than expected. Of the 45 total patients randomized, 31 completed the study (n=12 for the placebo group and n=19 in the supplement group). No significant differences were seen between groups at baseline, and the majority of patients maintained normal physical activity. Only 1 adverse side effect was found in each group; these patients were dropped from the study, supplementation discontinued, and no complications ensued.
The WOMAC scores in the supplement group declined steadily throughout the study, and the pain/stiffness and function scores of the test first significantly differed from the placebo group at weeks 3 (P≤0.01) and 4 (P≤0.05), respectively. Also, the total WOMAC score of the supplement group at 9 weeks was 53% lower than the baseline score. No significant changes were observed in the WOMAC score of the placebo group. In addition, the Lequesne's score of the supplement group was significantly different from the placebo group at week 4 (P≤0.05) and remained significant from weeks 5-9 (P≤0.01). By the end, the score had decreased by 78% as compared to the baseline score. No significant differences were seen in the Lequesne's scores of the placebo group.
The combination supplement of lemon verbena extract and omega-3 fatty acids significantly improved arthritis symptoms in this study. Many previous studies have shown that a diet rich in antioxidants may improve disorders caused by exercise-induced free radicals and other RONS-caused inflammation problems. Lemon verbena extract and compounds therein demonstrate antioxidant activity, and omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to benefit those suffering from joint problems; therefore, this tested mixture is worthy of future investigation into the treatment of arthritis and other inflammation diseases.
Source : American Botanical Council
via A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of the effect of a combination of lemon verbena extract and fish oil omega-3 fatty acid on joint management. J Altern Complement Med. November 2011;17(11):1051-1063.
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Fish oil compound stops leukemia in mice
A compound produced from fish oil that appears to target leukemia stem cells could lead to a cure for the disease, researchers say.
The compound—delta-12-protaglandin J3, or D12-PGJ3—targeted and killed the stem cells of chronic myelogenous leukemia, or CML, in mice, says Sandeep Prabhu, associate professor of immunology and molecular toxicology at Penn State.
The compound is produced from EPA—Eicosapentaenoic Acid—an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish and in fish oil.
“Research in the past on fatty acids has shown the health benefits of fatty acids on cardiovascular system and brain development, particularly in infants, but we have shown that some metabolites of omega-3 have the ability to selectively kill the leukemia-causing stem cells in mice,” says Prabhu. “The important thing is that the mice were completely cured of leukemia with no relapse.”
The findings, published in the journal Blood, show the compound kills cancer-causing stem cells in the mice’s spleen and bone marrow. Specifically, it activates a gene—p53—in the leukemia stem cell that programs the cell’s own death.
“p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that regulates the response to DNA damage and maintains genomic stability,” Prabhu says. Killing the stem cells in leukemia, a cancer of the white blood cells, is important because stem cells can divide and produce more cancer cells, as well as create more stem cells.
The current therapy for CML extends the patient’s life by keeping the number of leukemia cells low, but the drugs fail to completely cure the disease because they don’t target leukemia stem cells, says Robert Paulson, associate professor of veterinary and biomedical sciences, who co-directed the research with Prabhu.
“The patients must take the drugs continuously,” says Paulson. “If they stop, the disease relapses because the leukemia stem cells are resistant to the drugs.”
Current treatments are unable to kill the leukemia stem cells. According to the American Cancer Society, about 5,150 new cases of CML are reported annually and approximately 270 people die from the disease each year.
“These stem cells can hide from the treatment, and a small population of stem cells give rise to more leukemia cells,” says Paulson. “So, targeting the stem cells is essential if you want to cure leukemia.”
During the experiments, the researchers injected each mouse with about 600 nanograms of D12-PGJ3 each day for a week. Tests showed that the mice were completely cured of the disease. The blood count was normal, and the spleen returned to normal size. The disease did not relapse.
In previous experiments, the compound also killed the stem cells of Friend Virus-induced leukemia, an experimental model for human leukemia.
The researchers focused on D12-PGJ3 because it killed the leukemia stem cells, but had the least number of side effects. The researchers currently are working to determine whether the compound can be used to treat the terminal stage of CML, referred to as Blast Crisis. There are currently no drugs available that can treat the disease when it progresses to this stage.
The researchers, who applied for a patent, are also preparing to test the compound in human trials.
Source : Futurity.org
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Docosahexaenoic acid: A natural powerful adjuvant that improves efficacy for anticancer treatment with no adverse effects.
Siddiqui RA, Harvey KA, Xu Z, Bammerlin EM, Walker C, Altenburg JD
Cellular Biochemistry Laboratory, Indiana University Health, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA; Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA. email@example.com.
Epidemiological studies have linked fish oil consumption to a decreased incidence of cancer. The anticancer effects of fish oil are mostly attributed to its content of omega-3 fatty acids: eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, DHA, because of its unique effect of altering membrane composition, is often regarded as the major omega-3 fatty acid involved in anticancer activity. Although use of DHA as an anticancer drug to prevent or treat human cancer in clinical settings has not yet been well established, recent studies suggest that DHA can be very effective as an adjuvant with other anticancer agents. In this article, we present studies that show the role of DHA in improving anticancer drug efficacy. Several in vitro and animal studies suggest that combining DHA with other anticancer agents often improves efficacy of anticancer drugs and also reduces therapy-associated side effects. Incorporation of DHA in cellular membranes improves drug uptake, whereas increased lipid peroxidation is another mechanism for DHA-mediated enhanced efficacy of anticancer drugs. In addition, several intracellular targets including cyclooxygenase-2, nuclear factor kappa B, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, mitogen-activated protein kinase, AKT, and BCL-2/BAX are found to play an important role in DHA-mediated additive or synergistic interaction with anticancer drugs. The data suggest that DHA is a safe, natural compound that can greatly improve the anticancer properties of anticancer drugs. Use of DHA with anticancer treatments provides an avenue to therapeutic improvement that involves less risk or side effects for patients and reduced regulatory burden for implementation.
Source : Biofactors. 2011 Oct 28. doi: 10.1002/biof.181. [Epub ahead of print]
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Fish Oil, Breast cancer and Tamoxifen Therapy
A US study on rats found that tumours became more responsive to the drug tamoxifen with the addition of fish oil to their diets.
Researchers concluded that omega-3 fatty acids found in the fish oil could prove to be a safe and beneficial booster for tamoxifen therapy.
Tamoxifen blocks the female hormone oestrogen's ability to fuel breast cancer.
Rats with breast cancer were fed either a 17% fish oil diet or a 20% corn oil diet for eight weeks. In each case the oil supplement was given with or without tamoxifen.
Analysis of the tumours showed that omega-3 fatty acids in the fish oil increased the activity of genes promoting cellular specialisation, or differentiation.
This indicates an anti-cancer effect, since cancer cells are highly undifferentiated.
Combining fish oil and tamoxifen also reduced the activity of genes linked to tumour growth and cancer spread.
Study leader Dr Jose Russo, director of the Breast Cancer Research Laboratory at Fox Chase Cancer Center Philadelphia, said: "If a tumour was being treated with tamoxifen, the addition of an omega-3 fatty acid diet seemed to make the tumour, at least at the molecular level, more benign and less aggressive and responsive to tamoxifen."
The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research in Orlando, Florida
Source : Hospital Pharmacy Europe
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