Cinnamon Extract Reduces Postprandial Blood Sugar Levels in Humans and Rats
by Amy C. Keller
Reviewed: Beejmohun V, Peytavy-Izard M, Mignon C, et al. Acute effect of Ceylon cinnamon extract on postprandial glycemia: alpha-amylase inhibition, starch tolerance test in rats, and randomized crossover clinical trial in healthy volunteers.BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14(1):351. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-351.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is central to the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Controlling postprandial (after-meal) hyperglycemia is important to maintaining overall health and reducing the risk of both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. “Ceylon” or “true” cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum syn. C. zeylanicum, Lauraceae) has been used traditionally for gastrointestinal problems and continues to be used for respiratory infections. Although clinical trials have addressed the potential hypoglycemic activity of various types and preparations of cinnamon, studies conflict as to its efficacy. This in vitro, in vivo, and randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover human clinical trial investigated the starch tolerance of rats and healthy humans supplemented with Ceylon cinnamon bark extract.
Ceylon cinnamon bark extract (CCE; MealShape™; Dialpha; Montferrier sur Lez, France) is a 10:1 concentrate extracted with water and ethanol (50:50), which is then filtered and dried. [Note: Four of the seven study authors are Dialpha employees.] The resultant powder is standardized to contain at least 40% polyphenols, primarily oligomeric procyanidins composed of catechin and epicatechin. As a comparison for using the alcoholic solvent, an aqueous extract also was made. An enzymatic plate assay was used to gauge the inhibition of α-amylase (an enzyme that breaks down starches into sugars) activity, with acarbose (an anti-diabetic drug sold as Precose® in North America; Bayer; Whippany, New Jersey) as a positive control.
The authors used male Wistar rats for the in vivo experiments. Various groups comprising eight to 20 animals were tested to determine effects of CCE on glucose and insulin at 50 mg/kg body weight; dose-effects of CCE on glucose response at 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg body weight; and comparative responses between CCE and aqueous extracts at 50 mg/kg body weight. Fasted rats underwent a starch tolerance test (STT) and were fed wheat (Triticum aestivum, Poaceae) starch alone at 1.5 g/kg body weight as a control, or wheat starch with cinnamon extract at 20 mL/kg body weight. Blood glucose levels were measured at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes.
During the STT, rats administered CCE and starch at 50 mg/kg body weight experienced a significant 20.4% decrease in glucose area under the curve (AUC; a calculation used to estimate a compound’s bioavailability and clearance from the body) from 0-120 minutes, as compared to the control group (P<0.05). At the same dose, insulin AUC was significantly less after 60 minutes compared to control (P<0.05), with an insulin peak reduction of 40.6%. Glucose AUC from 0-120 minutes also was significantly less in rats given CCE at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight (P<0.05 for all). Compared to the aqueous cinnamon extract, CCE consumption in rats resulted in a significantly greater reduction in glucose AUC from 0-15 (P<0.05), 0-30 (P<0.01), and 0-60 minutes (P<0.05).
In vitro analysis
In the pancreatic α-amylase activity assay, CCE had an inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50; a measure of how much a substance inhibits a biological process) of 25 µg/mL, while the acarbose control had an IC50 of 18 µg/mL. When comparing the aqueous and alcoholic cinnamon extracts, the CCE had an IC50 of 30 µg/mL while the water extract had an IC50 of 40µg/mL.
The clinical trial took place at the Clinic Nutrition Center at Hôpital Saint Vincent de Paul in Lille, France, and was administered by Naturalpha, a contract research company based in Lille, France. The study’s primary endpoint was glucose AUC from 0-120 minutes following consumption of a standard white bread meal. Secondary endpoints included glucose AUC from 0-60 minutes, insulin AUC from 0-60 and 0-120 minutes, maximum concentrations of glucose and insulin, and concentrations of both at each time point. Adverse side effects (ASEs) were recorded and classified as mild, moderate, or severe.
Included subjects (aged 18 to 45 years) had a body mass index between 18.5 and 25 kg/m2 and less than a 5% variation in body weight for the three months prior to the study. Those with fasting glucose concentrations greater than 110 mg/dL, a history of diabetes, a smoking habit, or who took any supplements or pharmaceuticals that could impact glucose or insulin were excluded. Subjects who had two-hour postprandial capillary blood glucose concentrations greater than 140 mg/dl were excluded as well.
Subjects were instructed to maintain their current lifestyle and were randomly assigned to receive either CCE followed by placebo or placebo followed by CCE. Treatment consisted of two capsules of CCE (500 mg each) or placebo (500 mg; containing 20% microcrystalline cellulose and 80% dicalcium phosphate). After an overnight fast, participants had blood drawn 35 minutes prior to the test and were given CCE or placebo five minutes later with 125 mL water. At baseline, a standardized meal was consumed with 250 mL water within eight minutes (103 g of white bread containing 52.2% carbohydrates [3.6% of which were sugars], 7.4% protein, 0.1% lipids, and 3.3% fiber). Fasting glucose concentrations were calculated as an average of measurements taken five and 10 minutes before the meal; fasting insulin was determined five minutes before the meal; and glucose and insulin were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes following the meal.
Of the 22 subjects initially screened, 18 were randomly assigned to CCE (n=9) or placebo (n=9). Two subjects were not included in the per-protocol analysis due to protocol deviations, leaving 16 subjects in the final analysis. Upon supplementation with CCE, there was a significantly lower glucose AUC from 0-60 minutes compared to placebo (P<0.05). No other significant effects were noted, and no ASEs were observed.
In summary, CCE consumption in rats decreased both glucose and insulin concentrations during a starch tolerance test, and doses of 12.5 mg/kg body weight and above resulted in decreased glucose concentrations. Comparable IC50 levels for CCE and acarbose in the α-amylase activity assay suggest that enzyme inhibition is a likely mechanism of action for the alcoholic cinnamon extract. Although CCE significantly lowered glucose concentrations in healthy subjects, no effects were seen on insulin concentrations, which points to mechanisms independent of increased insulin in humans.
The authors mention that Ceylon cinnamon contains much less coumarin (a potentially toxic compound) than cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum syn. C. cassia), although alcohol extraction can increase an extract’s coumarin content due to its solubility. The CCE used in the study exposed participants to less than 0.2 mg coumarin per day (per one gram dose), well below the European Food Safety Authority’s tolerable daily intake guideline of seven mg/day for a 70-kg (154-lb) person. This study reports more robust bioactivity with the alcoholic extract than the aqueous extract, which deserves further investigation. Future clinical trials of hyperglycemic individuals should continue to examine the use of Ceylon cinnamon extract in managing this condition.
Source : HerbalGram
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Phytotherapy for Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A review of the literature and evaluation of practitioners’ experiences
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex, endocrine condition with potential long-term cardiovascular, endocrine and metabolic health implications. Currently, there exists no medical treatment that addresses all clinical presentations. Herbal practitioners often treat women with PCOS; yet, there is a lack of research investigating PCOS and herbal treatment. This study aimed to examine the current scientific literature on PCOS and phytotherapy, explore practitioners’ experiences treating women with the syndrome and evaluate whether there is a role for phytotherapy in the treatment of PCOS.
A literature search was conducted using the terms; ‘Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome’/‘PCOS’ and ‘phytotherapy’/‘herbal medicine’/‘herbs’. The published research identified by these terms was then reviewed. A brief questionnaire with a mix of eleven open and closed questions was sent to herbal practitioners on the National Institute of Medical Herbalists (NIMH) 2012 register.
The literature review found promising results for the use of Mentha spicata, Cinnamomum verum and berberine containing herbs. There was a weaker evidence base for the use of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Paeonia lactiflora. The questionnaire was completed by 72 practitioners, 71% had treated women with PCOS. The majority (38%, n = 50) felt herbal medicine was ‘quite successful’ in treating PCOS. The average time until herbal treatment started to be successful was 3.2 months. The most frequently used herbs were P. lactiflora, G. glabra and Vitex agnus castus. Dietary and lifestyle advice emerged as frequently identified therapeutic interventions.
This exploratory study suggests that there is a role for phytotherapy in the treatment of PCOS. Further investigation, consisting of well-designed clinical trials and monitoring the successful use of herbal medicine by practitioners, is clearly necessary. This future research would serve to substantiate positive empirical evidence, constructing a more robust evidence base for the effective use of phytotherapy as a therapeutic option for women with PCOS.
Source : Journal of Herbal Medicine
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Cinnamon Ointment Reduces Pain and Promotes Wound Healing After Episiotomy
by Shari Henson
Mohammadi A, Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi S, Mirghafourvand M, Javadzadeh Y, Fardiazar Z, Effati-Daryani F. Effects of cinnamon on perineal pain and healing of episiotomy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. J Integr Med. 2014;12(4):359-366.
Episiotomy, a common obstetric intervention during which an incision is made to enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth, is often accompanied by perineal pain in the immediate postpartum period that can affect child care and other responsibilities. Episiotomy treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for pain and Betadine® (Purdue Pharma L.P.; Stamford, Connecticut) for wound healing (although Betadine is no longer used frequently in the United States for postnatal perineal care). For some women, those therapies are unsatisfactory; instead, they seek more effective, safer options. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae) bark’s essential oil and ethanolic extract preparations exhibit numerous beneficial properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities1; however, no human studies have been conducted on its analgesic and healing effects. These authors conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effects of a cinnamon extract ointment on episiotomy wounds.
Women aged 18 to 40 years who had given birth vaginally with episiotomy were recruited in Tabriz, Iran, at two hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Alzahra and Taleghani Hospitals) and at one hospital affiliated with the Iranian Social Security Organization. In these hospitals, 90% of women undergo episiotomies during their first vaginal delivery and 70% during their second and third deliveries. (One reviewer of this article noted that such high percentages of women undergoing episiotomies in these hospitals represents “irresponsible and outdated medical care.” In 2005, episiotomies for vaginal births were performed on only 30 to 35% of women in the United States.2) The authors recruited 144 patients (mean age: 26.4 ± 4.9 years) from February 20, 2013 to October 31, 2013; follow-up ended on November 11, 2013. While in the hospital, the patients completed a questionnaire on socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics. Each patient’s episiotomy incision was measured, and a baseline of perineal pain and wound healing was assessed.
The authors randomly assigned 72 patients to the cinnamon ointment group or the placebo group, both of which were similar in terms of socio-demographic and reproductive characteristics. For more than half of the women in each group, the delivery was their first. The patients were instructed on how to apply the ointment to the episiotomy wound twice daily every 12 hours for 10 days.
The hydroalcoholic cinnamon bark extract ointment (2% by weight; prepared at the Industrial Pharmacy Laboratory at the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences) contained cinnamon, methyl paraben, propyl paraben, and Eucerin® (a dermatological cream for dryness, itching, etc.; Beiersdorf AG; Hamburg, Germany). Prepared at the same laboratory and placed in tubes identical in color, shape, and size, the placebo ointment contained the same ingredients except for the cinnamon extract.
For pain relief, 10 mefenamic acid capsules (400 mg) were administered to each patient. The patients were given a diary to record ointment use, analgesics taken, and any adverse side effects, and they were instructed to return to the hospital with their empty ointment tubes after 10 to 11 days for reassessment.
Primary outcomes were assessed as follows: Perineal pain was measured by visual analogue scale (VAS) and recorded at baseline (one hour after episiotomy repair), four (±1), and eight (±1) hours after the first treatment with the ointment, and at 10 to 11 days after delivery. Wound healing was assessed at baseline, eight (±1) hours after first applying the ointment, and at 10 to 11 days after delivery by using the Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Discharge, Approximation (REEDA) scale. Secondary outcomes included components of REEDA, the number of analgesics taken during the trial, the resumption of normal daily activities within five days postpartum, and adverse side effects. At 10 to 11 days postpartum, 62 patients in the cinnamon group and 61 in the placebo group remained in the trial for final analysis.
At baseline, the mean pain intensity was 5.0 ± 1.8 in the cinnamon group and 4.6 ± 2.0 in the placebo group. Pain intensity in the cinnamon group was significantly lower than in the placebo group after four hours (mean difference [MD]: -0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.0 to -0.2); after eight hours (MD: -0.9; CI: -1.4 to -0.3); and after 10 to 11 days (MD: -1.4; CI: -2.0 to -0.7). Compared with baseline values, pain intensity reduced by 16% at four hours, by 26% at eight hours, and by 76% at days 10-11 in the cinnamon group; the placebo group had pain intensity reductions of 2% at four hours, 4% at eight hours, and 43% at days 10-11. REEDA healing scores were significantly lower in the cinnamon group than in the control group at eight hours (MD: -0.2; CI: -0.4 to -0.04) and at days 10-11 after delivery (MD: -1.6; CI: -2.0 to -1.1). Compared with baseline, REEDA scores were 53% lower in the cinnamon group and 6% lower in the placebo group at days 10-11. Overall, both pain intensity and healing scores were significantly lower after cinnamon ointment intervention compared with placebo ointment intervention (P<0.01).
Evaluation of secondary outcomes revealed no significant between-group differences in the REEDA components at baseline and after eight hours, except for improved scores for wound approximation in the cinnamon group (P=0.02). Compared with baseline scores, wound healing scores in the cinnamon group improved significantly more than in the placebo group in four of five components (P<0.01 for redness and edema, P=0.021 for ecchymosis, and P=0.003 for approximation). At days 10-11 postpartum, no significant between-group differences were noted in the number of mefenamic acid capsules or other analgesics taken.
The number of patients resuming their normal daily activities within five days postpartum was significantly higher (P=0.003) in the cinnamon group (46 women; 74%) than in the placebo group (29 women; 48%). No adverse side effects were reported in either group.
Cinnamon bark’s three main compounds are eugenol, cinnamaldehyde, and linalool. According to the authors, eugenol, which has a topical numbing effect, may affect inflammation by reducing prostaglandin biosynthesis. Cinnamaldehyde also has anti-inflammatory properties,3 and linalool possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties that work by reducing nitric oxide and activating analgesic paths of cholinergic and glutamatergic compounds.4,5 The cinnamon polyphenols may also reduce inflammation.6
The authors conclude: “Our study results showed that use of cinnamon ointment on episiotomy incision for 10 d[ays] reduced intensity of perineal pain and improved healing of the incision with no significant side effects.”
1. Jakhetia V, Patel R, Khatri P, et al. Cinnamon: a pharmacological review. J Adv Sci Res. 2010;1(2):19-23.
2. Hartmann K, Viswanathan M, Palmieri R, Gartlehner G, Thorp J, Lohr KN. Outcomes of routine episiotomy: a systematic Review. JAMA. 2005;293(17):2141-2148.
3. Zarifkar A, Skandaryan HMS, Mokhtary M, Ay J. An evaluation on antinociceptive effects of eugenol by formalin test in rats. [Persian with abstract in English.] J Dental Medicine. 2003;16(1):61-67.
4. Peana AT, Marzocco S, Popolo A, Pinto A. (–)-Linalool inhibits in vitro NO formation: probable involvement in the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene compound. Life Sci. 2006;78(7):719-723.
5. Peana AT, D’Aquila PS, Chessa ML, Moretti MD, Serra G, Pippia P. (–)-Linalool produces antinociception in two experimental models of pain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003;460(1):37-41.
6. Hong JW, Yang GE, Kim YB, Eom SH, Lew JH, Kang H. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cinnamon water extract in vivo and in vitro LPS-induced models. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2012;12:237. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-237
Source : .HerbalGram. 2014; American Botanical Council
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Updated Meta-Analysis Shows Beneficial Effect of Cinnamon Supplements on Type 2 Diabetes
by Cheryl McCutchan, PhD
Reviewed: Allen RW, Schwartzman E, Baker WL, Coleman CI, Phung OJ. Cinnamon use in type 2 diabetes: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Fam Med. 2013;11(5):452-459.
Type 2 diabetes results in impaired glycemic control and potential complications from cardiovascular disease. The main forms of treatment for type 2 diabetes include medication, lifestyle adjustments, and dietary modifications. Dietary supplements are not generally recommended as a treatment by the American Diabetes Association because the organization believes that the clinical efficacy of supplements has not been sufficiently established and because there is a lack of “standardized formulations.” (Presumably, this refers to the fact that there are various types of cinnamon formulations, for example, that have shown some degree of clinical efficacy, and — unlike single chemical entity pharmaceutical medications — cinnamon dietary supplements contain numerous naturally occurring phytochemicals, more than one of which may contribute to the formulation’s physiological effect.)
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum spp., Lauraceae) has been demonstrated in basic research studies to lower serum lipids and blood glucose, promote insulin release, enhance insulin sensitivity, increase insulin disposal, and regulate protein-tyrosine phosphatase 1β and insulin receptor kinase. In studies with diabetic rats, cinnamon extracts were shown to increase the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). PPARs are targeted in therapies for diabetes and hyperlipidemia (high levels of blood lipids, e.g., cholesterol) and have been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in addition to decreasing triglyceride levels.
Evidence from previous human clinical trials has shown conflicting effects of cinnamon on blood glucose and lipids. The authors of the this review found no significant relationship between cinnamon and measures of type 2 diabetes in a previous meta-analysis published in 2008.1 For their current paper, they repeated the meta-analysis with the addition of five new randomized, controlled studies.
The databases MEDLINE®, Embase™, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched through February 2012 using the keywords cinnamon and diabetes. Studies were considered for inclusion in the analysis if they were randomized, controlled trials that investigated type 2 diabetes using cinnamon supplements in any dose or form. The studies had to have one of the following dependent variables measured to be considered for analysis: glycosylated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c), fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C, or triglycerides (TGs). All of the potentially relevant articles were reviewed by two of the investigators. Author identification, year of publication, study design, source of study funding, study duration and follow-up, study population, sample size, time since diagnosis, cinnamon dose, product name and brand, formulation used, and cinnamon species were recorded. Baseline data for hemoglobin A1c level, fasting plasma glucose level, body weight, body mass index, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TGs were recorded. The studies were checked for bias with the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The mean change from baseline for levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TGs were analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2 (Biostat). Both heterogeneity among studies and publication bias were calculated. The effects of cinnamon dosage and form were calculated with subgroup analysis.
Ten studies met the criteria imposed by the authors (n=543 subjects). Of these, eight trials had measures of hemoglobin A1c, LDL-C, and HDL-C, and eight trials had measures of fasting plasma glucose, TC, and TGs. Eight of the studies used formulations of C. aromaticum (syn. C. cassia) and two did not state the species of cinnamon. The dosage of cinnamon ranged from 120 mg per day to six grams per day. There was variation among the studies as to when the cinnamon supplements were administered relative to meals. In seven studies, participants took the cinnamon supplements with a meal. In the remaining studies, participants took supplements either before (one study) or after a meal (two studies).
Cinnamon supplements significantly reduced fasting plasma glucose by a weighted average of 24.59 mg/dL. This is a slightly greater reduction than that seen with the antihyperglycemic drug sitagliptin (-16 to -21 mg/dL), but considerably lower than that found with metformin monotherapy (-58 mg/dL). LDL-C and TGs also were reduced in patients who took cinnamon supplements when compared to control patients (-9.4 mg/dL and -29.6 mg/dL, respectively). Again, these reductions are considerably less than in patients on conventional medications; pravastatin and gemfibrozil have been shown to decrease both LDL-C and TGs by -50 mg/dL. HDL-C was significantly increased (1.66 mg/dL) in patients who took cinnamon supplements. There was no effect of cinnamon on hemoglobin A1c levels; however, when only capsule formulations of cinnamon were considered, hemoglobin A1c was significantly decreased (-0.27%).
There was a high level of heterogeneity among the studies for hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, TC, LDL-C, and TGs. This may be the result of variation among the studies in the patients’ age and health and in the dosage and form of cinnamon supplements used. There was also potential publication bias for fasting plasma glucose. No difference was seen in glycemic or lipid measures with cinnamon dosage.
These trends are similar to the authors’ findings from their 2008 meta-analysis, but the five additional randomized, controlled trials have allowed the authors to conclude that cinnamon does, indeed, have a positive, significant effect on some measures of glycemic and lipid metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes. This publication is consistent with another previous meta-analysis by other researchers of eight randomized, controlled trials on cinnamon preparations, which showed that cinnamon supplementation resulted in a statistically significant reduction of fasting blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes and prediabetes.2 —Cheryl McCutchan, PhD
1. Baker WL, Gutierrez-Williams G, White CM, Kluger J, Coleman CI. Effect of cinnamon on glucose control and lipid parameters. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):41-43.
2. Davis PA, Yokoyama W. Cinnamon intake lowers fasting blood glucose: meta-analysis. J Med Food. April 2011; [epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0180.
Source : American Botanical Council - HerbalGram
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Study finds a spoonful of cinnamon improves health
Sprinkling a spoonful of cinnamon on breakfast foods not only adds a burst of flavor but also dramatically lowers an individual's blood sugar levels, potentially reducing the chance of developing diabetes, says a new study from Ball State University.
Ball State researcher Jo Carol Chezem found when healthy weight and obese adults ate a cooked breakfast cereal with 6 grams of cinnamon, blood sugar levels declined by 25 percent for the next two hours compared to participants who did not ingest the spice. The study was reported in the November issue of the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Chezem's study involved 37 participants and confirms that in both healthy-weight and obese adults, cinnamon reduces blood glucose concentration and enhances insulin sensitivity, strengthening the body's ability to ward off diabetes. "Nearly 80 million American adults have prediabetes, a condition characterized by high blood glucose that often leads to diabetes," said Chezem, who teaches nutrition in Ball State's Department of Family and Consumer Sciences. "We are very encouraged by the study's results and are planning similar studies in individuals with prediabetes and diabetes." "Although the amount used in the study – 6 grams or about 2 1/2 teaspoons – was much more than a sprinkle, our subjects found the taste acceptable," she said. "Cinnamon can be added to a wide variety of foods. Some ideas include yogurt, iced coffees and teas, fruit smoothies and muffins." These research findings could play a major role in helping millions of Americans stay healthy by simply adding a flavorful ingredient to start their day, she said. Burden of Diabetes Among Adults in Indiana, released by the university's Global Health Institute (GHI) in 2011, found that another 5.6 percent of the adult population in Indiana report having prediabetes or borderline diabetes. The average annual health care cost for a person with diabetes in this country is $11,744 as compared to $2,935 for a person without diabetes "As health care in the United States becomes more expensive, cinnamon may offer a low cost approach to modifying blood glucose," Chezem said. Journal reference: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Source : Medicalxpress
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Anti-secretagogue and antiulcer effects of 'Cinnamon' Cinnamomum zeylanicum in rats
Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, P. O. Box 2457, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
The present study was carried out to evaluate the gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of 'Cinnamon' Cinnamomum zeylanicum in rats. The aqueous suspension of cinnamon (250 and 500 mg/kg) has been screened using pylorus ligation (Shay) rat model, necrotizing agents and indomethacin-induced ulceration in rats. Histopathological assessment was done on gastric tissue of rats. Gastric wall mucus and nonprotein-sulfhydryl contents were also estimated. Cinnamon suspension pretreatment decreased the basal gastric acid secretion volume and rumenal ulceration in pylorus ligated rats. The suspension effectively inhibited gastric hemorrhagic lesions induced by 80% ethanol, 0.2 M sodium hydroxide, and 25% sodium chloride. The cinnamon suspension also showed antiulcer activity against indomethacin. Pretreatment with cinnamon suspension offered a dose-dependent protection against various histological indices. Treatment of rats with cinnamon replenished the ethanol-induced decreased levels of gastric wall mucus and nonprotein-sulfhydryl concentrations. The gastroprotection of cinnamon observed in the present study is attributed to its effect through inhibition of basal gastric secretion (attenuation of aggressive factors) and stimulation mucus secretion (potentiation of defensive factors); and increase in nonprotein-sulfhydryl concentration probably due to prostaglandin-inducing abilities mediated through its antioxidant property.
Source : Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy Vol. 4(4) pp. 53-61, July 2012
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Cinnamon extract improves fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes
For thousands of years, cinnamon has been used as a traditional treatment in China. However, there are no studies to date that investigate whether cinnamon supplements are able to aid in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in Chinese subjects. We hypothesized cinnamon should be effective in improving blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-blinded clinical study to analyze the effect of cinnamon extract on glycosylated hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 66 patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into 3 groups: placebo and low-dose and high-dose supplementation with cinnamon extract at 120 and 360 mg/d, respectively. Patients in all 3 groups took gliclazide during the entire 3 months of the study. Both hemoglobin A1c and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced in patients in the low- and high-dose groups, whereas they were not changed in the placebo group. The blood triglyceride levels were also significantly reduced in the low-dose group. The blood levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and liver transaminase remained unchanged in the 3 groups. In conclusion, our study indicates that cinnamon supplementation is able to significantly improve blood glucose control in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes.
Source : Nutrition Research
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Cinnamon extract regulates glucose transporter and insulin-signaling gene expression in mouse adipocytes
- Cinnamon extracts (CE) are reported to have beneficial effects on people with normal and impaired glucose tolerance, the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance.
- The clinical results are controversial. Molecular characterization of CE effects is limited.
- This study investigated the effects of CE on gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes.
- The results presented support the hypothesis that cinnamon polyphenol extract has insulin-like and insulin-independent effects on the regulation of gene expression in mouse adipocytes.
- The results indicated that Cinnamon extract regulates the expression of multiple genes in adipocytes. Therefore, the health benefits of cinnamon are likely due to its multiple effects on expression of various genes.
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The Cinnamon-derived Michael Acceptor Cinnamic Aldehyde Impairs Melanoma Cell Proliferation, Invasiveness, and Tumor Growth
Christopher M. Cabello, Warner B. Bair, 3rd, Sarah D. Lamore, Stephanie Ley, Alexandra S. Bause, Sara Azimian, and Georg T. Wondrak*
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Arizona Cancer Center, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA *Address correspondence to: Georg T. Wondrak, Ph.D. University of Arizona, Arizona Cancer Center, 1515 North Campbell Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85724 USA
Redox dysregulation in cancer cells represents a chemical vulnerability that can be targeted by prooxidant redox intervention. Dietary constituents that contain an electrophilic Michael acceptor pharmacophore may therefore display promising chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic anti-cancer activity.
Here, we demonstrate that the cinnamon-derived dietary Michael acceptor trans-cinnamic aldehyde (CA) impairs melanoma cell proliferation and tumor growth. Feasibility of therapeutic intervention using high doses of CA (120 mg/kg, p.o., q.d., 10 days) was demonstrated in a human A375 melanoma SCID-mouse xenograft model. Low micromolar concentrations (IC50 < 10 μM) of CA, but not closely related CA-derivatives devoid of Michael acceptor activity, suppressed proliferation of human metastatic melanoma cell lines (A375, G361, LOX) with G1 cell cycle arrest, elevated intracellular ROS, and impaired invasiveness. Expression array analysis revealed that CA induced an oxidative stress response in A375 cells, up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), sulfiredoxin 1 homolog (SRXN1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1), and other genes including the cell cycle regulator and stress-responsive tumor suppressor gene cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), a key mediator of G1 phase arrest. CA, but not Michael-inactive derivatives, inhibited NFκB transcriptional activity and TNFα-induced IL-8 production in A375 cells.
These findings support a previously unrecognized role of CA as a dietary Michael acceptor with potential anticancer activity.
Source : National Institute of Health
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Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1
Ho-Keun Kwon1 , Ji-Sun Hwang1 , Jae-Seon So1 , Choong-Gu Lee1 , Anupama Sahoo1 , Jae-Ha Ryu1 , Won Kyung Jeon2 , Byoung Seob Ko2 , Chang-Rok Im3 , Sung Haeng Lee4 , Zee Yong Park1 and Sin-Hyeog Im1
1 School of Life Sciences and Immune Synapse Research Center, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Puk-ku, Gwangju 500-712, Republic of Korea
2 Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea
3 Global leader program, Bugil Academy, Cheonan, Gyeonggido 330-941, Republic of Korea
4 Chosun University School of Medicine, Gwangju 501-759, Republic of Korea
Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde), tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model.
Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model.
Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro.
Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of diverse cancers.
SOURCE : BMC Cancer 2010, 10:392doi:10.1186/1471-2407-10-392
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Aqueous Cinnamon Extract (ACE-c) from the bark of Cinnamomum cassia causes apoptosis in human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) through loss of mitochondrial membrane potential
Soumya J Koppikar1* , Amit S Choudhari1* , Snehal A Suryavanshi 1 , Shweta Kumari1 , Samit Chattopadhyay2 and Ruchika Kaul-Ghanekar1
1 Interactive Research School for Health Affairs (IRSHA), Bharati Vidyapeeth University Medical College Campus, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 National Center for Cell Science (NCCS), Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune, Maharashtra, India
Chemoprevention, which includes the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in human beings, is an extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention. Cinnamon is one of the most widely used herbal medicines with diverse biological activities including anti-tumor activity. In the present study, we have reported the anti-neoplastic activity of cinnamon in cervical cancer cell line, SiHa.
The aqueous cinnamon extract (ACE-c) was analyzed for its cinnamaldehyde content by HPTLC analysis. The polyphenol content of ACE-c was measured by Folin-Ciocalteau method. Cytotoxicity analysis was performed by MTT assay. We studied the effect of cinnamon on growth kinetics by performing growth curve, colony formation and soft agar assays. The cells treated with ACE-c were analyzed for wound healing assay as well as for matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression at mRNA and protein level by RT-PCR and zymography, respectively. Her-2 protein expression was analyzed in the control and ACE-c treated samples by immunoblotting as well as confocal microscopy. Apoptosis studies and calcium signaling assays were analyzed by FACS. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) in cinnamon treated cells was studied by JC-1 staining and analyzed by confocal microscopy as well as FACS.
Cinnamon alters the growth kinetics of SiHa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Cells treated with ACE-c exhibited reduced number of colonies compared to the control cells. The treated cells exhibited reduced migration potential that could be explained due to downregulation of MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, the expression of Her-2 oncoprotein was significantly reduced in the presence of ACE-c. Cinnamon extract induced apoptosis in the cervical cancer cells through increase in intracellular calcium signaling as well as loss of mitochondrial membrane potential.
Cinnamon could be used as a potent chemopreventive drug in cervical cancer.
SOURCE: Biomed Central 18/5/2010
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