Research - Centella asiatica / Gotu kola
Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke.
Farhana KM1, Malueka RG1, Wibowo S1, Gofir A1
This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (Centella asiatica) in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment - score at the beginning) mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke.
Source : Journal Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Link to Full Article
Medicinal value of asiaticoside for Alzheimer’s disease as assessed using single-molecule-detection fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, laser-scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and in silico docking
Shahdat Hossain12, Michio Hashimoto1*, Masanori Katakura1, Abdullah Al Mamun1 and Osamu Shido1
Identifying agents that inhibit amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) aggregation is the ultimate goal for slowing Alzheimer’s disease (AD) progression. This study investigated whether the glycoside asiaticoside inhibits Aβ 1–42 fibrillation in vitro
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), evaluating the Brownian diffusion times of moving particles in a small confocal volume at the single-molecule level, was used. If asiaticoside inhibits early Aβ 1–42 fibrillation steps, more Aβs would remain free and rapidly diffuse in the confocal volume. In contrast, “weaker or no inhibition” permits a greater number of Aβs to polymerize into oligomers, leading to fibers and gives rise to slow diffusion times in the solution. Trace amounts of 5-carboxyte
tramethylrhodamine (TAMRA)-labeled Aβ 1–42 in the presence of excess unlabeled Aβ 1–42 (10μM) was used as a fluorescent probe. Steady-state and kinetic-Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorospectroscopy, laser-scanning fluorescencemicroscopy (LSM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were also used to monitor fibrillation. Binding of asiaticoside with Aβ 1–42
at the atomic level was computationally examined using the Molegro Virtual Docker and Patch Dock.
With 1 h of incubation time for aggregation, FCS data analysis revealed that the diffusion time of TAMRA-Aβ 1–42 was 208 ± 4μs, which decreased to 164 ± 8.0μs in the presence of asiaticoside, clearly indicating that asiaticoside inhibited the early stages Aβ 1–42 of fibrillation, leaving more free Aβs in the solution and permitting their rapid diffusion in the confocal volume. The inhibitory effects were also evidenced by reduced fiber formation as assessed by steady-state and kinetic ThT fluorospec
troscopy, LSM, and TEM. Asiaticoside elongated the lag phase of Aβ 1–42 fibrillation, indicating the formation of smaller
amyloid species were impaired in the presence of asiaticoside. Molecular docking revealed that asiaticoside binds with amyloid intra- and inter-molecular amino acid residues, which are responsible for β-sheet formation and longitudinal extension of fibrils.
Finally, asiaticoside prevents amyloidogenesis that precedes neurodegeneration in patients with Alzheimer’s disease.
Source : BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Link to Full Article.
Pycnogenol® and Centella Asiatica for asymptomatic atherosclerosis progression
Belcaro G. 1, Dugall M. 1, Hosoi M. 1, Ippolito E. 2, Cesarone M. R. 3, Luzzi R. 1, Cornelli U. 1, Ledda A. 1
1 Irvine3 Circulation Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, G. D’Annunzio University, Pescara, Italy;
2 Vascular Surgery, University of Milan, Milan, Italy
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the nutritional supplements Pycnogenol and TECA (total triterpenic fraction of Centella Asiatica) on atherosclerosis progression in low-risk asymptomatic subjects with carotid or femoral non-stenosing plaques.
Methods: This was an observational pilot substudy of the San Valentino epidemiological cardiovascular study. The study included 1363 subjects aged 45-60 without any conventional risk factors who had non stenosing atherosclerotic plaques (<50%) in at least one carotid or common femoral bifurcation, allocated into 6 groups: Group 1 (CONTROLS): management was based on education, exercise, diet and lifestyle changes. This same management plan was used in all groups; Group 2 Pycnogenol 50 mg/day; Group 3 Pycnogenol 100 mg/day; Group 4 Aspirin 100 mg/day or Ticlopidine 250 mg/day if intolerant to aspirin; Group 5 Aspirin 100 mg/day and Pycnogenol 100 mg/day; Group 6 Pycnogenol 100 mg/day plus TECA (total triterpenic fraction of Centella Asiatica) 100 mg/day. There was a six monthly follow-up up to 30 months. Plaque progression was assessed using the ultrasonic arterial score based on the arterial wall morphology and the number of plaques that progressed from the non-stenotic to the stenotic group. A secondary endpoint was to evaluate the changes in oxidative stress at baseline and at 30 months.
Results: The ultrasonic score increased significantly in groups 1, 2 and 4 but not in groups 3, 5 and 6 suggesting a beneficial effect of Pycnogenol 100 mg. The percentage of plaques that progressed from class IV to class V was 8.4% in group 2, 5.3% in group 3, 4% in group 5 and 1.1% in group 6 (P<0.0001) compared with 16.6% in group 4 (aspirin) and 21.3% in the control group suggesting a beneficial effect of Pycnogenol. The lowest rate of progression was in group 6 (Pycnogenol plus TECA). At 30 months, the oxidative stress in all the Pycnogenol groups was less than in the control group. The oxidative stress was lower in the Pycnogenol 100 mg group than the Pycnogenol 50 mg group (P<0.0001). In the combined group of Pycnogenol and TECA the oxidative stress was less than the Pycnogenol alone (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Pycnogenol and the combination of Pycnogenol+TECA appear to reduce the progression of subclinical arterial lesions in low-risk asymptomatic subjects. The reduction in plaque progression was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress. The results justify a large randomized controlled study to demonstrate the efficacy of the combined Pycnogenol and TECA prophylactic therapy in subclinical atherosclerosis.
Source : International Angiology
Link to Abstract
Identification of Major Active Ingredients Responsible for Burn Wound Healing of Centella asiatica Herbs
Fang Wu,1 Difei Bian,1 Yufeng Xia,1 Zhunan Gong,2 Qian Tan,3 Jiaojiao Chen,1 and Yue Dai1
1State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmacology Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tong Jia Xiang, Nanjing 210009, China
2Center for New Drug Research and Development, College of Life Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210024, China
3Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing 210008, China
Centella asiatica herbs have been prescribed as a traditional medicine for wound healing in China and Southeast Asia for a long time. They contain many kinds of triterpenoid compounds, mainly including glycosides (asiaticoside and madecassoside) and corresponding aglycones (asiatic acid and madecassic acid). To identify which is the major active constituent, a comprehensive and comparative study of these compounds was performed. In vitro, primary human skin fibroblasts, originating from healthy human foreskin samples, were treated with various concentrations of asiaticoside, madecassoside, asiatic acid, and madecassic acid, respectively. Cell proliferation, collagen synthesis, MMP-1/TIMP-1 balance, and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway were investigated. In vivo, mice were orally administered with the four compounds mentioned above for two weeks after burn injury. The speed and quality of wound healing, as well as TGF-β1 levels in skin tissues, were examined. Interestingly, in contrast to prevalent postulations, asiaticoside and madecassoside themselves, rather than their corresponding metabolites asiatic acid and madecassic acid, are recognized as the main active constituents of C. asiatica herbs responsible for burn wound healing. Furthermore, madecassoside is more effective than asiaticoside (P=0.0446 for procollagen type III synthesis in vitro, P=0.0057 for wound healing speed, and 0.0491 for wound healing pattern in vivo, correspondingly).
Source : Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 848093
Link to Full Article