Research - Acne
MEDICINAL PLANTS ON ACNE INDUCING BACTERIA
Tanushree Tulsian Samanta, Ankita Das
Acne is a cutaneous pleomorphic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit involving abnormalities in sebum production and is characterized by both inflammatory (papules, pustules and nodules) and non-inflammatory (comedons, open and closed) lesions. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are common pus-forming microbes responsible for the development of various forms of Acne vulgaris. The present study was conducted to evaluate antimicrobial activities of seven medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria. Acetonic and aqueous extracts of Azadirachta indica (leaves), Curcuma longa (root), Aloe vera (leaves), Withania somnifera (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark), Ocimim sanctum(leaves), Santalum album (wood) were tested for antimicrobial activities by agar diffusion, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) methods. The results from the agar diffusion method showed that five medicinal plants could inhibit the growth of acne-inducing bacteria. Among these Azadirachta indica,Curcuma longa and Terminalia arjuna had strong inhibitory effects. Based on MIC, the acetonic extracts of Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa had the greatest antimicrobial effects. Taken together, the present study indicated that Azadirachta indica had a strong inhibitory effect on acne-inducing bacteria.
Source : International Journal of Phytotherapy
Link to Full Article
A review of phytotherapy of acne vulgaris: Perspective of new pharmacological treatments
Aim This review focuses on plants currently used and those with a high potency for the future development of anti-acne products.
Methods All relevant literature databases were searched up to 25 March 2011. The search terms were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, and acne, acne vulgaris and anti-acne. All of the human, animal, and in vitro studies, and reviews were included. Anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-androgen effects were the key outcomes.
Results Studies on cell lines revealed that flavonoid, alkaloid, essential oil, phenol and phenolic compound, tannin, xanthone and xanthone derivative, and the bisnaphthquione derivative are effective in treatment of acne. Animal studies showed that diterpene acid, phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside and flavonoids have anti-inflammatory activity. Eleven human studies revealed that Camellia sinensis has 5α-reductase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activities. Also anti-bacterial effect was shown by oleoresin of Commiphora mukul.
Conclusion In addition to the standardization of these herbs, screening herbs as anti-acne agents may help to find new sources of therapy for acne.
Source : Fitoterapia
Link to Full Article
The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study.
Enshaieh S, Jooya A, Siadat AH, Iraji F.
Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
BACKGROUND: Finding an effective treatment for acne that is well tolerated by the patients is a challenge. One study has suggested the efficacy of tea tree oil in treatment of the acne vulgaris.
AIM: To determine the efficacy of tea tree oil in mild to moderate acne vulgaris.
METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind clinical trial performed in 60 patients with mild to moderate acne vulgaris. They were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with tea tree oil gel (n=30) or placebo (n=30). They were followed every 15 days for a period of 45 days. Response to treatment was evaluated by the total acne lesions counting (TLC) and acne severity index (ASI). The data was analyzed statistically using t-test and by SPSS program.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences regarding demographic characteristics between the two groups. There was a significant difference between tea tree oil gel and placebo in the improvement of the TLC and also regarding improvement of the ASI. In terms of TLC and ASI, tea tree oil gel was 3.55 times and 5.75 times more effective than placebo respectively. Side-effects with both groups were relatively similar and tolerable.
CONCLUSION: Topical 5% tea tree oil is an effective treatment for mild to moderate acne vulgaris.
Source : Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007 Jan-Feb;73(1):22-5.
Link to Full Article
Thyme May Be Better for Acne Than Prescription Creams
Herbal preparations of thyme could be more effective at treating skin acne than prescription creams, according to research recently presented at the Society for General Microbiology's Spring Conference in Dublin. Further clinical testing could lead to an effective, gentler treatment for the skin condition.
Researchers from Leeds Metropolitan University tested the effect of thyme, marigold and myrrh tinctures on Propionibacterium acnes -- the bacterium that causes acne by infecting skin pores and forming spots, which range from white heads through to puss-filled cysts. The group found that while all the preparations were able to kill the bacterium after five minutes exposure, thyme was the most effective of the three. What's more, they discovered that thyme tincture had a greater antibacterial effect than standard concentrations of benzoyl peroxide -- the active ingredient in most anti-acne creams or washes.
Dr Margarita Gomez-Escalada who is leading the research project explained how tinctures are made from plants and herbs. "The plant material is steeped in alcohol for days or even weeks to prepare a tincture. This process draws out the active compounds from the plant. While thyme, marigold and myrrh are common herbal alternatives to standard antibacterial skin washes, this is the first study to demonstrate the effect they have on the bacterium that causes the infection leading to acne," she said. The researchers used a standard in vitro model that is used to test the effect of different substances applied to the skin. The effects of the tinctures were measured against an alcohol control -- proving their antibacterial action was not simply due to the sterilizing effect of the alcohol they are prepared in.
These initial findings pave the way for more research into the use of tinctures as a treatment for acne. "We now need to carry out further tests in conditions that mimic more closely the skin environment and work out at the molecular level how these tinctures are working. If thyme tincture is proven to be as clinically effective as our findings suggest, it may be a natural alternative to current treatments," explained Dr Gomez-Escalada.
A herbal treatment for acne would be very welcome news -- particularly for acne sufferers who experience skin sensitivity. "The problem with treatments containing benzoyl peroxide is the side-effects they are associated with," said Dr Gomez-Escalada. "A burning sensation and skin irritation are not uncommon. Herbal preparations are less harsh on the skin due to their anti-inflammatory properties while our results suggest they can be just as, if not more, effective than chemical treatments."
Source : Science Daily
Link to Source
Treatment of Acne Using Oral Antibiotics Associated With Reporting Symptoms of Sore Throat
Taking oral antibiotics for treatment of acne appears to be associated with reporting symptoms of pharyngitis (sore throat), according to a report published Online First by Archives of Dermatology, one of the JAMA/Archives journals.
"Many inconsistent concerns have been voiced about the safety of long-term use of antibiotics," the authors write as background information in the study. "Because of the high prevalence of acne and the frequent use of antibiotics to control acne, individuals undergoing therapy to treat their acne are an ideal group in which to study the effects of long-term antibiotic use."
David J. Margolis, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues with the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, conducted two concurrent studies (a cross-sectional study and a longitudinal study) to examine the association between antibiotics used to treat acne and pharyngitis. The authors also examined the association between oral antibiotics and colonization rates of group A streptococcus (GAS; form bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness) as previous research has shown a link between oral antibiotics and higher rates of GAS. Participants in both studies included college students, who were asked to fill out a self-administered survey form, were swabbed for culture and had a visual examination for acne.
In the cross-sectional study, the authors found that 10 of 15 students receiving oral antibiotics for acne reported an episode of pharyngitis in the past 30 days, and 47 of 130 students not receiving oral antibiotics, but who had acne, reported an episode of pharyngitis in the previous month. Combining all 251 students not receiving oral antibiotics, 82 (32.7 percent) reported an episode of pharyngitis in the previous 30 days. Three of 145 students with acne (2.1 percent) were found to be colonized with GAS, however none of the three was receiving oral antibiotics.
The longitudinal study included 358 female and 218 male participants; 36 (6.2 percent) received oral antibiotics for acne during the study and 96 (16.6 percent) received topical antibiotics for acne. The authors found that the use of oral antibiotics was strongly associated with a health care evaluation for pharyngitis. Of students receiving oral antibiotic treatment, 11.3 percent reported pharyngitis. Conversely, pharyngitis was reported by 3.3 percent of students not receiving oral antibiotics. Additionally, no association with pharyngitis was noted for those who used a topical antibiotic for acne, and the authors found that less than 1 percent of participants were colonized by GAS, indicating that it is not associated with pharyngitis.
"Our studies show that the odds of developing self-reported pharyngitis is more than three times baseline in patients receiving oral antibiotics for acne vs. the odds for those who are not receiving oral antibiotics," the authors conclude. "The true clinical importance of these findings needs to be evaluated further by prospective studies."
Source : Science Daily
Link to Source